Institute of Philosophy
Russian Academy of Sciences




  Philosophy of Science and Technology, 2016, Vol. 21, No. 1
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Philosophy of Science and Technology, 2016, Vol. 21, No. 1

 

CONTENTS


SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, SOCIETY


The Problem of Interdisciplinarity in the Context of the Russian Science Reforms. Papers of the “Round Table”.

The following publication holds the papers of the “round table” “Interdisciplinarity in the Context of the Russian Science Reforms” which was held in the Institute of Philosophy RAS on June the 8th 2015. The main subject of the discussion is the concept of interdisciplinary that has recently acquired new meaning and political dimension in the context of the Russian Academy of Sciences reforms.

Keywords: interdisciplinarity, RAS reforms, monodisciplinary research, fundamental science, transdisciplinarity, science efficacy

 

 

THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


V. Zuev. On the Way to the Theory of Biological Taxonomy.

Work purpose: research of features of the theory of biological taxonomy which is characterized in modern philosophy of science as immature science, in comparison with samples of mature science, for example, of physics, and development of concrete recommendations for development of the theory of biological taxonomy according to standards of the modern developed theory. As material of research literature on epistemological and methodological problems of classical science and its concrete part – biological taxonomy served. As methodological means of the analysis the author uses the theory of social relays of M.A. Rozov as an effective remedy of research of structure of the scientific theory. Empirical and theoretical aspects of activity of scientists, and also features of theoretical construction processes in biological taxonomy are analyzed. The conclusion is drawn that the creation of the developed theory has to include the following stages. The first is reorganization of a reflection of scientists from empirical nature of activity on the theoretical – an explication of the theoretical investigation phase which isn't reflexed by taxonomists. The second stage – solution of the problem of a way of life of a biological taxon transition from programs of classification of biological diversity and program of recognition of relations in classification systems to the program of creation of models of taxa within system and cumatoid ontologies. The formulation of the Law of formation of taxa as a result of a solution of the problem of a way of life of a biological taxon.

Keywords: biological taxonomy, naturalistic approach, sociocultural approach, the immature theory, the developed theory, theoretical construction, the Law of formation of taxa

 


RESEARCH PROGRAMS OF EPISTEMOLOGY


R. Harré. Constructivism and Realism.

The article deals with the role of models in the scientific research of those objects that go beyond the limits of perceptive observability. The types of representations is analyzed, the distinction between subjects and sources of scientific models is made. The author discusses the question of the relation between the model and the scientific picture of the world and the question of ontological reliability of modeling. The idea of “Third” L. Wittgenstein on the “hinges” are used. This idea claims that many human practices and associated discourses “turn” (like the doors turn) on the certain unmoving “hinges”. The author suggests that such “hinges” of the scientific discourse are the “matter of fact” propositions.

Keywords: constructivism, realism, models, representations

 

 

LANGUAGE, CONSCIOUSNESS, COMMUNICATION


A. Sinha, V. Lysenko. Do Animals Have Consciousness? (Interview).

In the interview given to Victoria Lysenko a well-known Indian primatologist Anindya Sinha talks about his studies of wild bonnet macaques’ intelligence. He touches upon the issues of social skills, decision-making and cheating in macaques, and dwells on the methodological approaches to the study of animal intelligence in general, and of intelligences in apes, in particular, which consists in the allocation of different functions associated with consciousness and studying them separately. Among others, a problem how to specify human language in comparison with sign language peculiar to apes, questions of associative learning as a cause of unconscious behavior, and of a continuity principle in evolution of species are also raised.

Keywords: macaques’ intelligence, primatology, social skills, decision making, cheating, functionalist approach, behaviorist approach, animal language, associative learning, evolution of species

 

 

INNOVATIVE COMPLEXITY


V. Arshinov, Ya. Svirsky. Complexity World and Its Observer. Part 2.

In offered article authors intend to contemplate a problem connected with occurrence concept of «paradigm of complexity» and interfaced with that is terminologically designated as «complexity» and «observer complexity». It’s stressed that very important role in understanding this problem connect with quantum mechanics.

Keywords: complexity, observer of complexity, context, communication, entanglement

 

I. Melik-Gaykazyan. Tower of Babel as the Metaphor of Hi-Tech Dynamics «Semiotic Attractor».

The post-non-classical scientific picture of the world (V. Stepin) introduced the new nonlinear dynamics concepts – processuality, variability, nonlinearity, multidimensionality – for the study of innovations in sociocultural systems. In fundamental nonlinear dynamics studies it was established that the scenarios of complex system dynamics have the spectrum of objective goals interpreted as attractors. The comparison between sociocultural attractors and innovation goals is capable to become the way of social measurements of Sci-Tech. The problem of sociocultural system dynamics measurement for differentiation between actual and illusionary complexity of modern sociocultural systems under the influence of Hi-Tech was discussed. The methodological solution of the problem was proposed and based on the correspondence of self-organization phases, elements of semiotic mechanism of culture, information process stages and characteristics of information.

Keywords: the problem of measurement, semiotic dynamics, characteristics of information, «semiotic attractor»

 


ETHICS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


V. Cheshev. Engineering Thinking in the Anthropological Context.

Problems of humanization of engineering education and the humanization of engineering activity are particularly relevant in view of the high degree of complexity of modern technosphere and its deep penetration in society, today and affects the nature of man. In these circumstances, the social role and social responsibility of the engineering community grows, it becomes a performer of all social projects. The paper drew attention to the pathways of human knowledge in engineering, more precisely – of a direct and indirect involvement in knowledge about human engineering thinking. It is pointed out that the knowledge of man is connected in many ways with engineering thinking in the design of individual devices, technology and socio-technical systems. Identifies three levels of synthesis of humanitarian and civil engineering Engineering thinking. There are three levels of synthesis of humanitarian and civil engineering Engineering thinking. The socio-humanitarian knowledge in the modeling of complex socio-technical systems (connecting the man-made world and the social environment) is particular importat. In this case humanities are the basis for the social expertise of technical projects. However, exceptional importance is the highest layer of philosophical knowledge about man and the process of its formation. In this philosophical anthropology, which takes into account the cultural-activity of human nature, is able to be the basis of synthesis of humanities and science. The article substantiates the need for a synthesis of knowledge about the evolution of human activities and the achievements of the philosophical and cultural anthropology. It is noted that the social responsibility of the engineering community can not be limited to a implementation of social contracts. Engineering community should have a voice in the discussion of the prospects of social and technological development, which will become possible with the mutual oncoming traffic engineering community and the social environment in the review and selection of prospects for social development.

Keywords: engineering thinking, the engineering community, anthropology, objective activity, the technosphere, humanities, outlook

 


HISTORICAL EPISTEMOLOGY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


A. Pechenkin. Two Histories of Research in Chemical Periodical Reactions.

The paper is about the phenomenon of two histories of the same research area – the area of research in the chemical periodical processes. The phenomenon of two histories has resulted from the struggle for leadership and priority. The first history has been formed as a prehistory of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. The triad principle is realized in this history: the first research in chemical oscillations, «Dark age», Belousov’s research and its extension by Zhabotinsky and his group. The second history has been written by researches who were not directly connected with Zhabotinsky’s group. It is constructed according the principle of expansion: the first observations and research, the first generalizations and theories, the differentiation of research. The “Dark age” is absent in this history.

Keywords: the history of science, research area, the oscillatory chemical processes, scientific leadership, the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, the triad principle, the principle of expansion, the first generalizations, Dark age

 

OSedykh, MKhamenkov. Organ Projections: Russian Context.

It is proposed to consider «organ projections» idea which started the philosophy of technology in the light of historical and cultural existence of body-machine metaphors (special attention is paid to P.A. Florensky’s philosophy). The modern era demanded technical extension of man out into the world but the romanticism began thinking about returning a subject from his own extensions (otherness) among which in the XIXth century important place was owned by machine technology. In the XXth century with the advent of disproportionate technical extensions was raised a question of reverse technical effects on human being. In this connection it is interesting to watch the existence of body-machine metaphor in poetic discourse of the XXth century which is considered on the material of Russian poetry. Although in the beginning of the XXth century the «organ projections» idea did not find much support in recent years it acquires a new meaning (computer metaphor) and modern equivalents (the extensions of man idea by M. McLuhen). Actually in a field of technology the organ projections process becoming more conscious (bioengineering, bio-cybernetics, nanotechnology).

Keywords: organ projections, metaphor of machine, mechanism, organism, instrument, extension, technology, culture, philosophy of technology

 

 

HUMAN SCIENCES

Y. Korotchenko. Valuative modeling of collective consciousness.

It is researched the possibility of modeling the interpretative activity of the collective consciousness in the spirit of philosophical analytics. As a model it is proposed the collage construct called valuativ which combines the basic forms, means, results of interpretative activity of the collective subject – presentation of the heroic, hostile, normal, valuable, and language, artistic creativity and ideology. Along with the above key properties – to be synchronized as a collage and to contain ingredients so that each of them tends to cover the whole field of evaluation being actually functional in their substructural boundaries valuativ carries out important social functions. It would be a mistake to disclose its function only according to its fragments taken isolated from each other and distinguish making heroes, regulating etc. Valuativ is the integrity of its identities and, therefore, its functions should be defined as functions of the whole. The functions carried out by valuativ such as interpreting, motiving social action, organizing and centering community of any scale, differentiating society into "territories of valutivs" are revealed. It is emphasized that the interpretive function is dominant. The author suggests the analysis for the structure of the interpretive process in its relation to valuativ matrix. The object of interpretation is the social reality fragments; the means for interpretation are given in the valuativ matrix lines; the results of interpretation are presented as objects of social reality which refer to valuativ matrix lines. The possibility of internal varying depending on what valuativ component centration is made. At the same time none of the possible models is not considered to be objectively superior to others. Special attention is given to pan-axiological model as to one which pretends to predominance and which is based on speculative substantial interpretation of values.

Keywords: collective consciousness, collective consciousness interpretative activity, interpretive models for interpretative activity, valuativ, valuativ matrix

 

 

SOCIAL AND POLITICAL DIMENSION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


V. Lepsky. Innovative Development of Russia: Philosophical Analysis.

Objective of article is development of recommendations on perfection of conceptual bases and mechanisms of innovative progress in Russia and on space SCO. Base investigative techniques are developed on the basis of use of three types of scientific rationality (classical, nonclassical, postnonclassical). Are used the approach of activity, it is subject-activity and subject-focused approaches which have allowed to allocate models of innovative progress appropriating various types of scientific rationality. On the basis of base models of innovative progress the assessment of separate strategic documents and the projects defining a state of the art and prospects of innovative progress of Russia and space SCO is lead. The generalized assessment of the considered approaches maybe is stated as dominating orientation to “market innovative progress”, to commerce of innovations, with wide participation of the international companies to which end-products basically and innovations will go. And the degrading Russian economy appears not ready to their development. To what disorder of aircraft construction, motor industry and many other things of branches of a national economy testifies. The principal cause, in our opinion, is connected with a strong effect of liberal ideology on formation of strategy of innovative progress, despite lacking support of this ideology mostly the Russian society. Perspective mechanisms of innovative rise of the country could become modernized in view of modern scientific development and the Russian realities Institutes of the General designers who have provided earlier world positions of the country in a number of directions of development of hi-tech production. On space SCO the problem of creation alongside with the engineering centers of the Strategic centers of innovative progress with use of technologies of Institutes of general designers is actual.

Keywords: innovative progress, models, methodology, the scientific rationality, spontaneous innovative environments, integrity, SCO

 


SCIENTIFIC LIFE


N. Smirnova. First All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference “Philosophy of Creativity” (8–9 of April 2015, Institute of Philosophy RAS, Moscow).

The main content of the first All-Russian scientific and practical conference on Philosophy of creativity’s presented papers has been analyzed in this article. The most important problems as well as the most significant achievements have been outlined. The problem of common language in the context of interdisciplinary research has been regarded. The paper has also presents the results of both “round table” discussion and young scientists division’s achievements.

Keywords: creativity, meaning, language, activity, artificial intelligence

 

G Purynycheva. Review of All-Russian (with International Participation) Conference of Students and Young Scientists “Russia in Modernization: Culture, Technology, Personality” (13–15 of May 2015, Volga State University of Technology, Yoshkar-Ola).

DrSc in Philosophy, Prof., Head of the Chair of Philosophy, Volga State University of Technology, Head of the Joint Laboratory (of the Institute of Philosophy, RAS and Volga State University of Technology) for Philosophy of Technology and Technology Studies. 424000, the Republic of Mari El, Yoshkar-Ola, Lenin Sq., b. 3. E-mail: mrphilosoph86@gmail.com.

This article is a general review of All-Russian (with international participation) conference of students and young scientists “Russia in modernization: culture, technology, personality” that was held on May 13-15, Volga in Yoshkar-Ola.

Keywords: Joint Laboratory for Philosophy of Technology and Technology Studies, culture, engineer, values in profession, scientific conference

 


BOOKSHELF


V. Gorokhov. Reflections on the book by V.Slivyak “From Hiroshima to Fukushima” (Moscow: Eksmo, 2012, 256 pp.).

The article tackles the problems of nuclear safety whilst analyzing the book by V.Slivyak “From Hiroshima to Fukushima”. It demonstrates the acuteness of the problem of the nuclear safety assessment in the situation where the real levels of danger are either underestimated or hidden by energy companies or public authorities. It is shown that the book is filling the gap between the undereducated public opinion on this matter and the one-sided expert assessment by the specialists.

Keywords: nuclear safety, nuclear energy, safety, technological risks, ecology, technology assessment