Institute of Philosophy
Russian Academy of Sciences




  Philosophy of Science and Technology, 2015, Vol. 20, No. 2
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Philosophy of Science and Technology, 2015, Vol. 20, No. 2

 

CONTENTS

 

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, SOCIETY


Science. Technologies. Human. Materials of “round table”

“Voprosy Filosofii” and “Filosofiya nauki i tekhniki” journals held joint “round table” “Science. Technologies. Human”. The participants made the analysis of the science position in modern society, its role in the creation of new technologies, the impact on human life, the changes that the current development of science and technology creates in the relationship between civilization and nature, in opportunities to monitor and control various processes. The concept of the “knowledge society”, the fate of applied and fundamental science in the present society, the phenomenon of technoscience and the problem of transformation of human under the influence of scientific and technological innovations were also discussed.

Keywords: science, technology, society, civilization, technoscience, scientific progress, scientist, nature, world, human, posthuman, humanities, natural sciences, global issues, humanity, knowledge society, humanism

 

 

INNOVATIVE COMPLEXITY


H. Knyazeva. Innovative Complexity: Methodology of Organization of Complex Adaptive and Network Structures

The phenomenon of innovative complexity, types of innovations, characteristic stages of the process of diffusion of innovations, causes of fails of innovative processes in social media are considered in the article from the standpoint of the science of systems. On this basis, some methodological conclusions concerning effective ways of organization of adaptive and network structures supporting innovations are drawn. Characteristic properties of adaptive network structures, such as active adaptation, ability to self-completing, self-scaling (fractality) of spatial and temporal organization, emergent nature are demonstrated. Special attention is paid to consideration of network structures in communication.

Keywords: adaptation, innovation, Network Science, network structures, complexity, complex systems, emergent properties

 

V. Arshinov, Ya. Svirsky. Complexity World and Its Observer. Part 1

In this article the authors intend to contemplate a problem connected with occurrence of the concept of “paradigm of complexity” and the concepts of “complexity” and “observer complexity” that are interconnected with the former. The article stresses that quantum mechanics way of thinking should play an important role in this process.

Keywords: complexity, observer of complexity, context, communication, entanglement

 

K. Mainzer. Exploring Complexity: from Artificial Life and Artificial Intelligence to Cyberphysical Systems

The classical cybernetics in the Norbert Wiener’s tradition is nowadays a part of the mathematical theory of complex systems and nonlinear dynamics. Only in these frameworks, building of structures and patterns in nature and technics can be explained and in computer models simulated. Self-organization and emergence became well-defined concepts and can be transferred to technical systems. In the first part of the article, the foundations of complex systems and of nonlinear dynamics are under review. As an application, the building of structures and patterns in complex cell systems, which are subject of system biology, is considered. In the second part, the application of complex system dynamics to evolution of brain and cognition is explored. The research gives us a prerequisite for development of cognitive and social robots, what the topic of the third part is. Neural network structures are not at all limited to individual organisms and robots. In the fourth part, the cyberphysical systems, by means of which complex self-controlling sociotechnical systems are modeled, are studied. The mathematical theory of complex systems and nonlinear dynamics provides us with foundation for understanding of self-organization and emergence in this field. Finally, the question of ethical and social general conditions for technical constructing of complex self-organizing systems are stated and discussed.

Keywords: complex systems, nonlinear dynamics, cognitive robotics, cyberphysical systems

 

 

EPISTE MOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES


D. Ivanov. Reception of Analytical Philosophy in Russia

The article examines the reception of analytical philosophy in Russia. In this paper analytical philosophy is considered as tradition of philosophizing, which is dominant in English-speaking countries. This tradition is in opposition to the tradition of philosophizing denoted by the term “continental philosophy”. In the past two decades, the modern analytical philosophy is becoming popular not only in English-speaking countries. The influence of this philosophical tradition extends to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Now it is possible to talk about development of analytical philosophy in Russia. Soviet Marxist philosophy belonged to the tradition of continental philosophy. However, this does not mean that Soviet philosophers were not familiar with the analytical philosophy. The development of the ideas of analytical philosophy in Soviet Union can be presented as follows. First of all, the study of analytical philosophy took place in the context of criticism of bourgeois philosophy. Another line of development of analytic philosophy has passed through the logic. Although there were some features of analytical philosophy in the works of Soviet philosophers, analytical philosophy has not become any notable event in the philosophical life of the country and, of course, could not be formed as a separate line of thought. Since the nineties of the last century to the present, the development of analytical philosophy in Russia goes mostly through the study of history of philosophy. But since the beginning of the new century the number of theoretical studies which may well be described as belonging to analytical philosophy has also increased. They are devoted to issues that are central for analytical philosophy and they use the methodology inherent in this tradition. Basically it is the study of problems of philosophy of language and philosophy of mind.

Keywords: analytical philosophy, history of Russian philosophy, history of logic in Russia, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind

 

RT. Rockmore. Sellars’ Logical Space of Reasons and Kant’s Copernican Revolution

Wilfrid Sellars's currently influential approach to knowledge follows Kant in rejecting the given in favor of an approach to knowledge based on the logical space of reasons. Though Sellars turns away from the Copernican revolution, he builds on a recognizably Kantian approach to provide knowledge of the mind-independent real as it is through scientism, in his case the preference for the scientific over the so-called folk view.

Kant argues for his novel Copernican paradigm in pointing to the failure to make progress if we assume that “all our cognition must conform to the objects.” Sellars builds on the traditional reading of Kant as a representational thinker, precisely the approach the latter later abandons in his Copernican turn. If Sellars is correct, then Kant was mistaken to abandon traditional representationalism. If Kant is correct, then, on the contrary, Sellars’ effort to support the traditional, representational approach to cognition will fail.

More than two centuries ago Kant thought that no progress had ever been made on the assumption that knowledge must correspond to the object. Sellars’ failure to show that we cognize mind-independent reality indirectly suggests the interest of the alternative Copernican approach by assuming that objects must conform to our cognition. Since no one has ever formulated an argument to show that we in fact grasp mind-independent reality, this entire effort fails. I take this point to support the Kantian alternative in turning to a constructivist approach to cognition.

Keywords: Kant, Sellars, Copernican, space of reasons, knowledge, cognition

 

 

THEORY AND MET HODOLOGY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


A. Pertsev, V. Pimenov. Paul Natorp: The Development of Kantian Epistemological Model as a Response to the Challenges of Non-classical Science

The present research article is devoted to the Marburg project of philosophy, particularly to P. Natorp who tried to find a place for philosophy in the time of rapid growth of scientific knowledge. The German philosopher focused on the creating of a new epistemological model which would be able to combine the worlds of science and philosophy in one system. This approach raised doubts among the philosophers, who reproached Natorp for the loss of the «spirit of philosophy». In this paper we would like to show that the common theory of cognition is not trying to simplify or destroy original philosophy, but it implements into the practice the global task of finding the foundations of human culture which was discovered in the principles of Subject’s activity. The new concept was formulated on the basis of Kant’s critical philosophy which was constructed in accordance with dominant ideologems of the 18-th century and demonstrated good coherence with Newton’s science. One of them, «sensibility», has formed the basis of religious, scientific, philosophic systems of that time, but at the end of the 19th – beginning of 20th century it was not able to support the changing culture frames, which made Natorp look for the new bases of cultural universe not in the naïve notion of «reality», but in the principles of thinking. Although the connection between kantianism and natural science is not the only possible way of analysis, nevertheless we cannot deny that the «interest in science» is one of the central motives of philosophy for Kant and for Natorp. In the present article we are focused on the investigation of how the changing of scientific reality corresponds with a changing of Neo-Kantian epistemological system at the same time bearing in mind that this relation is a partial task of the kantian thought claming to versatility and fullness.

Keywords: Paul Natorp, Neo-Kantianism, Marburg School, Immanuel Kant, non-classical science, relativity theory

 

 

SOCIAL AND POLITICAL DIMENSION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


N. Emelyanova, V. Omelaenko. Russian Science in the Context of Media

The article is devoted to the structural and conceptual changes in the modern science communication. Specific features of scientific information that is making in media determine these changes. Science and media industry are considered as two crucial and independent systems in reproduction of information. Common for many countries trends in development of science communication are illustrated in this article. Russian specific character such as decline of scientific-literacy despite high credibility to the domestic science is in the focus too. The results of a special media-research “Russian science beyond the headlines of central news agencies, print media and online editions (2013–2014)” are published in this article. A variety of context information retrieval, a monthly dynamic of messages, a distribution of messages in different mass media types and a proportion of original messages to the reprints are amongst them. The most demand newsbreaks in federal mass media are topically grouped and defined by qualitative analysis. Information about Russian science and Russian sciences in central mass media shows within every topically unit. The certain conclusions are made about activity of the central Russian mass media in the sphere of information making about Russian science and Russian sciences.

Keywords: scientific information, open science communication, medialization of science, Russian science in mass media

 

J. Hahn, C. Merz, C. Scherz. Identity Shaping: Challenges of Advising Parliaments and Society. A Brief History of Parliamentary Technology Assessment

Technology Assessment (TA) is a concept of problem-oriented research, policy consulting, and societal dialogue which aims at supporting society and policy making in understanding and managing societal problems resulting from scientific and technological developments. We sketch a brief history of TA which is closely linked to its ‘invention’ as a policy consulting method. On the basis of two examples (Office for Technology Assessment in the USA and Office for Technology Assessment at the German Bundestag in Germany), we will give insights into the heterogeneous political and societal conditions under which TA institutions have been established in the past. After this, we reflect on formats, methods and practices that can help further develop TA as we follow the underlying hypothesis of TA as an approach that has to continuously change and adapt. Thereby, the concept of conferences can be fruitful for the TA community to stay vivid in a continuously changing environment.

Keywords: technology assessment, policy consulting, parliament, problem-oriented research, interdisciplinarity

 

 

TOWARDS THE 70th ANNIVERSARY OF THE GREAT VICTORY: PHILOSOPHY AND PHILOSOPHERS DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR


S. Korsakov. The Institute of Philosophy and the Great Patriotic War

The article tells about the everyday life of the Institute in the time of War, about the scientific work of philosophers, political repression and the change of leadership of the Institute. During the Great Patriotic War the Institute of Philosophy was divided into Moscow and Almaty offices. Most of the staff was evacuated. All employees continued to work, focusing on military issues. The most significant events of the academic life of the Institute war years were the doctoral thesis of G. Lukács, the publication of volume III of the "History of Philosophy" and the discussion of the logic textbooks by V. F. Asmus and E. J. Colman. In 1944 there was a change of leadership of the Institute: the supporters of G. F. Alexandrov have replaced the supporters of M. B. Mitin. For this cause G. F. Alexandrov has used the letter from Z. Y. Beletsky about the third volume of the "History of Philosophy". One of the important elements of the Institute’s change of leadership was the arrest of some of the Institute members – the supporters of Mitin.

Keywords: Soviet philosophy, the Great Patriotic war, the Institute of Philosophy, Stalinism

 

V. Gorokhov. Ts.G. Arsakanian (1917–2003)

This article is about the life of the Russian philosopher Armen (Tsolak) Arsakanian (born in Erevan, Armenia). He was leading the department of western philosophy in the editorial office of the Russian principle philosophy journal “Voprosy Filosofii” in Moscow from 1962 until 2002. He was a prisoner of war in Germany during Second World War and was liberated by the USA Army from concentration camp Dachau in 1945. He spoke fluent German and was and interpreter of I. Kant. Enclosed with the article are his own letter from 2000 to Germany and another letter from his German friend Mr. Bartel, who was also war veteran.

Keywords: Arsakanian, World War II, Dachau, journal “Voprosy Filosofii”