Institute of Philosophy
Russian Academy of Sciences

  Philosophy of Science, 2015, Vol. 20, No 1.
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Philosophy of Science, 2015, Vol. 20, No 1.



V.A. Lektorsky. Foreword from the Chief Editor


V.G. Gorokhov. Ballistic of Niccolo Tartaglia, Galilean Technoscience and Nanotechnoscience: Physics of Aristotle Through the Centuries

Galileo Galilei was one of those who created this new science oriented to technical needs. He made the important step in the revision of the Aristotelian physics. But the Aristotelian conceptual structure remains not only in the Galilean technoscience, but also in the nanotechnoscience. The same conceptual structure was the basis of the ballistic as new engineering theory of Niccolo Tartaglia (1499/1500-1577). Galileo created more than a model of experimental activity; he demonstrated how to develop scientific knowledge so that it could be used for technical purposes. This approach became possible because Galileo's new science had its roots in technical practice and was oriented to it. In his new science, Galileo manipulated natural objects like the present-day engineer. However, Galileo's new style of scientific-engineering and engineering-scientific thought and action manifested itself mainly in the sphere of thought rather than in practical activity. Galileo's works paved the way for the formation of engineering thinking and activity in practice as well as theory. That is why his science was not only the embryo of the natural sciences but also engineering science and was really technoscience similar to modern technoscience (e.g. nanotechnoscience). This article is prepared for the project „From Galileo's technoscience to the nanotechnoscience (philosophical and methodological analysis)“ Nr. 13-03-00190 of the Russian Foundation for Humanities.

Keywords: ballistic, engineering science, technoscience, natural science, Tartaglia, Galileo



A.S. Karpenko. In Search of Reality: Disappearance

The problem of reality discussed in the present paper is evoked by debate on philosophical foundations of quantum mechanics. The author underlined the phase of discussions which may be called post-Einsteinian and post-Bohrian. Much consideration is given to problem of non-locality in quantum world, to famous Bell’s inequalities and Aspect’s experiments, which played an important role in proving superiority of Copenhagen interpretation for quantum theory, which is opposed to theories requiring the use of hidden parameters. It is shown that phenomena of quantum entanglement and non-locality gradually blur the classical concept of reality. Still the problem turns out to be much more complicated, because numerous studies question the rigid distinction between spirit and matter, and in this case the largest share is given to the creative ability of consciousness. It is stated that modal, possibilistic thinking approach opposed to anti-realism gains yet more significance and gives rise to “superrealism” requiring realization into actuality for everything thought of as possible. As the result, the famous philosophical proposition by René Descartes takes the following form: “I exist, ergo I am thinking the possible”. (“To exist means to think the possible”).

Keywords: reality, EPR-paradox, local realism, Bell's inequalities, non-locality, entanglement, consciousness, modal thinking, superrealism



G.D. Levin. The Necessary and the Random in Actuality and Cognition

The necessary is seen in this article as an event that is unambiguously determined by the preceding state of the universum, the random is seen as an event that is not in any way determined by it. The author provides a classification of different types of the necessary. The author argues the position of the consecutive determinism. According to this position all events in the world are equally necessary and what we call random is seen as the unknown necessity.

Keywords: necessity, necessary, contingency, random, determination, connection, function, causality, pre-established harmony, consecutive determinism, soft determinism, connection of states



J.V. Khen. Qualitative Demography: Past and Future

The change in emphasis in population policy, to move from a simple accounting of population growth to the management structure, recently raised more and more often. The idea of optimizing the quality of the people is the idea of degeneration of mankind, as a result of weakened action of natural selection. Qualitative demography occurs when translating traditional eugenic projects at the State level. The need for such a step in the development of the eugenic movement is related to two factors. First, it is an extreme high cost of eugenic measures, which only the State budget. And secondly-almost all eugenic manipulation illegal, i.e. translation of demographics on the quality the Rails ", probably will require changes in the law. The purpose of the paper is to consider the historical variety of demographic utopias and trying to avoid the errors and excesses, try to assess the opportunities and prospects for qualitative demography today.

Keywords: qualitative demography, eugenics, racial hygiene, Darwinism, adaptation, degeneration




A. Grunwald. Ethics for Nanotechnology

It has been postulated in the debate on the ethics of nanotechnology that a new “nano-ethics” is necessary. In this contribution, an attempt is made to discover new ethical aspects of nanotechnology in a more systematic manner than has been the case. It turns out that there are hardly any completely new ethical aspects raised by nanotechnology.

Keywords: nanoethics, nanotechnology, history, philosophical aspects


H.P. Tiras. Ethics and Practice of Biological Research 200 Yearsof Evolution

The central objective of biology is a complete description (of the organization) of wildlife. Basic biological discipline is the morphology that includes search and recording of information about the structure of the object, its description and preservation of the received information for further analysis. The computer revolution in the creation of live digital images of biological objects has stimulated the process of "mathematization" of biology. This has led to the emergence of a new technological paradigm in biology and revived naturalistic ethics, which allows remote (non-invasive) study of the object.

Keywords: ethics of naturalism, non-invasive methods, quantitative description, computational biology, digital images




A.P. Alekseev, I.Yu. Alekseeva. Economical Positivism and the Future of Science

The forms and effects of economical positivism expansion to evaluation of productivity in science are under consideration in the paper. The authors distinguish such types of economical positivism as “economicsical” positivism and “bibliometric” positivism. Resemblance of “economicsism” and postmodernism in their attitudes toward science is argued in the paper. The authors articulate the problem of self-consciousness of science and philosophy of science in the context of NBICS-revolution.

Keywords: economical positivism, “economicsical” positivism, “bibliometric” positivism, knowledge economy, self-consciousness of science, NBICS-revolution



D.I. Dubrosvkii. On the Problem of “Other Mind”. Are there Manifestations of Consciousness in “Vegetative State” Patients?

Author discusses new approaches to the problem of “other mind” that are connected with the research on the vegetative state patients and with the discovery of the way to communicate with them via functional brain mapping methods. Epistemological analysis of the results of this research helps to clarify the signs of the existence of consciousness of the subject under the conditions where outer expression of psychical states is impossible because of the motor functions blocade. The communication medium in this case is brain neurodynamical equivalents of certain consciousness phenomena that are registrated by functional MRT. These neurodynamical equivalents are the code structures that are deciphered by the researcher. The questions of adequacy of cognition of the subject’s own consciousness phenomena in the process of autocommunication are raised in connection with the classical analogy argument, the acuteness of fundamental epistemological research on this matter is shown. The discovery of the way of communication with vegetative state patients verifies the possibility of the realization of the new way of communication. The success in the deciphering of the brain neurodynamic codes of the subjective reality phenomena show the perspective for such type of interpersonal communications, which can have a strategic meaning for the social self-organization development.

Keywords: other mind, subjective reality, vegetative state, criteria for the existence of consciousness, analogy argument, comprehension, arbitary action, functional brain mapping methods, neurodynamic equivalents of the subjective reality phenomena as a communication medium




A.F. Yakovleva. Reflection on the Book “Relativism as a disease of contemporary philosophy”

The paper is reviewing the content of the book "Relativism as a disease of contemporary philosophy" (Rep. Ed. V.A.Lektorsky). Authors of the book analyze the main problems associated with the trend of relativization in the processes of cognition and in the modern epistemology. The authors identify different types and kinds of relativism, emphasizing the need to separate knowledge from opinion, truth from error and lies in order to show that the knowledge should not be reduced to the “situated knowledge”. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of relativistic tendencies in the development of science and in the modeling of the culture development.

Keywords: relativism, epistemology, relativity, сcognition, science, frame, culture, philosophy, dialog


V.M. Rozin. Essay in an Interdisciplinary Social Research (Based on the book by Z.Bauman “Modernity and The Holocaust”)

The article analyzes the book by Z.Bauman “Modernity and The Holocaust”, recently translated into Russian language. The author reconstructs four main objectives set by Bauman: to give a scientific explanation of the Holocaust, to involve society and sociologists into the new understanding of this terrible phenomenon, to carry out criticism of sociological methods, to formulate the lessons of the Holocaust. Bauman discusses an approach to solving these problems: He thinks not only as a scientist, but also as a philosopher and methodologist, and as a publicist. The “findings” of Bauman during the solution of these problems are analyzed: a combination of different methods of study (historical, humanitarian, sociological, cultural, social, psychological, institutional), analysis of the impact of the social machines on the social consciousness and actions of individuals, the implementation process (social-engineering) approach breeding two anthropological horizons – societal and personal. The analysis methods used by the author are comparative analysis, methodological problematization, reconstruction of the text, hermeneutics and synthesis. The impression is that Bauman uses the Holocaust rather as a material to find new ways to study social phenomena. In addition, it shows that the main causes of the Holocaust were: an unusual set of circumstances, the European tradition of anti-Semitism, the implementation of the state of racial theory of the Nazis, social-engineering approach to society and the individual, the transformation of consciousness of individuals and of the masses under the influence of a well-functioning social technology.

Keywords: society, the Holocaust, social engineering, technology, government, ethics, morality, resistance, action, the reform




E.O. Trufanova. Review of the 26th Baltic Conference on the Historyof Science (21–22 of August, 2014, Helsinki, Finland)

This article is a review of the 26th Baltic conference on the History of Science which was held on August 21-22nd 2014 in Helsinki, Finland. Apart from the general review of the conference, the article concentrates on the more detailed analysis of the papers dealing with the problems of the philosophy of science that were presented by P. Müürsepp, J. Eigi, E. Trufanova, A. Yakovleva, E. Kasak, E. Lohkivi, I. Kaufman, B. Railiene, M. Roinila, J. Agassi.

Kewords: Baltic Association of the History and Philosophy of Science, Baltic Conference on the History of Science, history of science, philosophy of science, scientist as a profession




V.G. Gorokhov. In Memory of Vadim Nikolaevich Sadovskij


Information for the Authors