Institute of Philosophy
Russian Academy of Sciences




  Philosophy of Science. № 19. Moscow, 2014
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Philosophy of Science. № 19. Moscow, 2014

 

CONTENTS


Preface

SCIENCE AND SOCIETY


Kasavin I.T. Interdisciplinary Research and Social Picture of the World.

The concept of social technologies is nowadays applied to signify a uni­versal mechanism for building up a social ontology – a sphere, within which artifacts, techniques, culture and sociality merge together. Current dynamics of scientific knowledge is virtually in total to be determined through interaction with this very sphere; while to the syncretic diversity of social ontologies the new forms of scientific activity and communication are correspondent, being embraced by the concept of interdisciplinarity. Thus interdisciplinarity proves to be a special type of social technology of scientific research, yet projecting certain fragments of social ontology.

Key words: knowledge, science, social ontology, culture, interdisciplinar­ity, social technologies

 

Markova L.A. Transformations of interdisciplinarity in the context of social epistemology.

Interdisciplinarity is considered at the edge of turning it into a intersubjec­tivity. Iterdisciplinarity is based on the relation between the logical structures of scientific knowledge, that faces the outside world. But to the extent that, however, as scientists and philosophers are beginning to pay more attention to the subject pole of the research process, the relations between disciplines are transformed into relations between authors of new knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge, cognition, interdisciplinarity, intersubjectivity, surrounding world, objectivity, subjectivity, case studies, laboratory, context, sociality of knowledge

 

Nikiforov A.L. The role of science in modern society.

The main aim of natural science of modern times has been the develop­ment and improvement of means to increase the production of material goods. Truth in science has always been only an aid to achieve this primary objective. Modern consumer society is the result of symbiosis of capitalism and techno­science. Output of crisis is refocusing on study of human.

Keywords: science, technology, truth, people, morality

 

Chertkova E.L. The truth as a moral problem of epistemology.

The problem of truth is seen in the context of modern epistemology as the philosophical understanding of science. Shows the points of intersection of epistemology and ethics on the example of the relationship between the concepts of truth and conscience, duty and responsibility.

Keywords: epistemology, relativism, ethics, science, truth, duty, conscience

 

Antonovskyi A.Ju. Society as a theoretical object. Emergentism of social theory vs. reduction of Natural Science.

The paper is devoted to the difference of theoretical status of social and natural sciences. The following questions are posited and settled:

– which factor determines this foundational difference between these sci­ences;

– can the contemporary society as the referent of some social theories be a subject of observation in the same sense as the observable objects in natural sciences;

– the implication is made that the society is a constructed concept which gets its meaning exclusively in framework of model of emergentism.

Keywords: emergentism, reductionism, social theory, scientific theory

 

 

RESEARCH PROGRAMS OF EPISTEMOLOGY


Zagidullin Zh.K., Kuznecova N.I. Outlines of the empirical epistemology based on the theory of social relays.

The article presented with a plan of empirical epistemology based on the theory of social relays Russian philosopher Mikhail Rozov. Formulated by the current situation and agenda of philosophy of science. Describes the ontology of empirical epistemology, and a program of empirical analysis of individual scientific disciplines (focused on the analysis of knowledge, theories, forming science programs and reflection of scientists). The article also presented the notions and categories for analysis of the phenomena of interdisciplinary, and described a method for using the results of sciences from other disciplines (his­tory and methodology of science, sociology of knowledge, case-studies, STS).

Keywords: empirical epistemology, philosophy of science, social relays theory, scientific knowledge, interdisciplinary

 

Knyazeva H.N. Evolutionary Epistemology in the Face of Interdisciplinary Challenges of the Modern Science.

Evolutionary epistemology in its modern state and trends of development is under consideration in the article. It is shown how it meets the interdisciplin­ary challenges of the modern science. The cognitive complexity (complexity of cognition, of cognitive functions of consciousness, of the bound of mind and body in the process of cognition, of coupling of cognitive agent and of a medium of its life, action and cognition) is studied. It is demonstrated that idea of evolution which has been always considered as a key idea in evolution­ary epistemology obtains nowadays a wider disciplinary basis. Evolution of living nature in the sense of evolutionary doctrine of Charles Darwin which received in the XXcentury a supplement with genetics is only a part of global or universal evolutionary process, of the so-called Big History. The evolution­ary foundation for evolutionary epistemology becomes a broader one, and a deeper understanding of mechanisms of evolution of nature, general patternsof evolution is achieved. According to this understanding, life emerges, then a human being as a reasonable creature emerges, his cognitive activity raises to the highest manifestation of spirit, the human history runs. Some modern re­sults of study of consciousness, of neurophysiologic processes which underlie the cognitive activity of a living being, of appearance of consciousness and its higher cognitive and creative abilities are analyzed as well.

Key words: evolutionary epistemology, cognitive biology, adaptation, co­evolution, interdisciplinarity, consciousness, philosophical naturalism, emer­gence, enactivism, evolutionary thinking

 

 

LANGUAGE, CONSCIOUSNESS, COMMUNICATION


Smirnova N.M. The Concept of Intersubjectivity in the Framework of Interdisciplinary Research.

The heuristic power of “intersubjectivity” concept is analysed in this paper in interdisciplinary context, that is in philosophical, epistemological, socio-epistemological and socio-antropological frameworks. Sociological im­plications of intersubjectivity are also represented. The meaningful sources of intersubjectivity concept had been traced back to European contemporary philosophy. It is substantiated, that (post)non-classical rationality with its ac­cent to meaningful structure of the social thinking and activity serves as the paradigme matrix of interdisciplinary conception of intersubjectivity.

Key words: intersubjectivity, meaning, context, the social construction of reality, cognitive patterns

 

Beskova I.A. Natural intelligence, interdisciplinary and the integral comprehension phenomenon.

In the article the sources of the special discipline representatives’ skepti­cisms in relation of philosophical investigations and results are specified, and the perspectives of the state of affairs improvement in this sphere are marked. It is shown that the philosophical contribution to the NBIC-projects develop­ment is connected with a formulating of a more adequate approach to a natural intelligence understanding. The weak points of a modern computer and infor­mational paradigm are detected and the ways of their effective correction are proposed. In accordance with this theme the phenomenon of an integrative comprehension is investigated. It is argued that the concept of the integrative comprehension is more adequate to a real complexity of the human natural intelligence than the phantoms which are disclosed in acts of a subject’s intro­spection, because the last one is inseparably connected with a man’s lookout position in relation of himself, i.e. with a dual mind position. In the article is also justified that the dual mind position is closer correlated with the notion of an understanding by means of reasoning.

Key words: natural intelligence, thinking, rational understanding, integral comprehension, mind, embodiment, subject’s lookout position, duality

 

Trufanova E. Split Consciousness as an Interdisciplinary Problem.

The article is dedicated to the problem of split consciousness. The author considers such aspects of this problem as split-brain problem, split psyche in the different mental disorders and splitting of the Self in cognitive and creative acts. It is shown that splitting of consciousness (in the form of splitting of the Self) exists in conscious acts of the individuum almost constantly and it plays an important part in the abstract thinking process that lies in the basis of human cognition and creative activity.

Key words: consciousness, self-consciousness, the Self, dissociation, split, split-brain

 

Kuslyi P.S. Anaphora and semantic analysis as a problem of philosophy of language.

The article gives an overview of interdisciplinary studies of anaphora in contemporary theoretical linguistics and philosophy of language. The author fo­cuses on the approaches that try to explain a so-called donkey-anaphora. He provides an alternative account of the semantics of donkey-pronouns in terms of an indefinite description and tries to defend it against some standard objections.

Key words: formal semantics, anaphora, donkey-pronouns, philosophy of language, theoretical linguistics, interdisciplinary studies

 

Migla A.V. Structural realism and Ramsey-sentence.

The article concerns the issue if a Ramsey-sentence of a theory can convey it’s structure. The question is considered in the scope of structural realism which is currently one of the most popular versions of realistic doctrines. The author analyses attempts of philosophers who adopt Ramsey-sentence realism to answer M.Newman’s argument which states that Ramsey-sentence of a theory can provide only trivial knowledge about theoretical entities of this theory. The author comes to the conclusion that no version of Ramsey-sentence realism can suggest an appropriate answer to Newman’s objection.

Key words: scientific realism, structural realism, Ramsey-sentence, theo­retical terms, unobservable entities, reference.

 

Levin G.D. The facts in interdisciplinary research.

Treatments of a thing and the fact, offered by G.Frege, B.Russell and L.Vitgenstein are analysed. Fact definition as the state of affairs reflected in empirical knowledge is proved. Value of this definition for interdisciplinary researches is shown.

Key words. A thing, property, the relation, the fact, factual knowledge, theoretical knowledge, theoretical loading the facts299 Summary

 

 

CIVILIZATIONS AND MIND


Maidanov A.S. Mytho-study and archeology as complementary and stimulating each other disciplines.

The article is devoted to the interaction mytho-study and archeology in the process of learning their fate and life ways of one of the great ancient peoples, ancestors of the Indians and Iranians – the Aryans. Shows how dis­covered archaeological sites to help interpret the mythical characters and sto­ries, on the other hand, as contained in the myths of cognitive information suggests the objective, and the possible objects of her research. Characterized by the current state of the complementary studies on the subject, describes the approaches used and the methods put forward the idea of developing a new scientific discipline – mythoarchaeology.

Key words: epistemology, archaeology, mythology. problem, method, information, archaeological culture, mythical image, thinking, interpretation, evolution, hypothesis, theory

 

Gerasimova I.A., Milkov V. Healing and medical bookness in Ancient Russia.

There were three types of healing – magic practice, teotherapy, pro­fessional natural medicine. Each type of healing presents specific ontology, knowledge and attitude in the practice. Natural life cycles and rhythms were essential for healing.

Key words: Ancient Russia, healing, medical bookness, ontology, knowl­edge, magic, cycles, rhythms

 

Summary

The Authors