Institute of Philosophy
Russian Academy of Sciences




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Research themes of the Department

2013-2017

 

The title of research work (theme):

«The main facets of human being»

 

Abstract: The phenomenon of human being is probably the main theme of modern philosophical anthropology. Understanding of man is possible only through disclosure of extreme complexity and multi-dimensionality of his existence. As has been believed from time immemorial, man is valuable not only by what is seen but mainly by what is hidden. He is greatly significant exactly by this secretness, about which not only great mystics but also modern philosophical anthropologists wrote. In voluminous modern literature on man two poles might be specified. On the one hand, there appears a desire to study the biological nature of man with greater depth. This finds reflection in the project of the so-called new naturalism. On the other hand, a trend related to the phenomenon of transcendence gains speed. The spiritual dimension in man acquires transcendent foundation. The proposed project is aimed at synthesizing these two approaches and presenting a new variant of interpreting human being taking into consideration new philosophical developments.

As a result, the realization of the project will:

- reveal the role of the main phenomena of human being;

- prove the improperness of modern projects of de-biologization and de-anthropologization of man;

- offer new world-view foundations of human existence.

 

Key words: philosophical anthropology, human being, human nature, human  essence, labour, game, death, love, phenomena of human existence.

 

Major stages of work:

1. Analysis of the main phenomena of human being: desire for power, labour, game, love, death.

2. Consideration of the theme of «Self» as a subject of ordinary and philosophical self-knowledge.

3. Criticism of modern naturalism. Influence of achievements of biological sciences on the traditional understanding of man. Conceptual analysis of the programme of new naturalization in human, social and cultural research.

4. Study of the transpersonal man as a transcending and creative subject.

5. Exposure of the historical destinies of philosophical anthropology.

 

Research supervisor:

head of the Department of the History of Anthropological Doctrines,

Prof. P.S. Gurevich, D.Sc. (Philosophy), D.Sc. (Philology)

 

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2008-2012

 

The title of research work (theme):

«New conceptions of human nature»

 

Major stages of work:

1. Study of the problem of human identity.

2. Technologies of personal growth.

3. Transformation of philosophical anthropology in the 21st century.

 

The following results were obtained:

- as was shown, renewed philosophical anthropology took the leading place in the system of humanitarian knowledge;

- as was demonstrated, classical conceptions of human nature underwent significant changes. Previously, human nature was thought to be unchangeable. However, it is subject to serious transformations. At the same time, modern conceptions of «de-biologization» and «de-anthropologization» of man distort human nature and make serious threats;

- the concepts of «human nature» and «human essence» were distinguished. As was shown, human essence lies in his invariable two-dimensionality – immanence and transcendence, while «human nature» expresses a characteristic of man’s changeable traits. This permitted to analyze modern versions of the transcendent dimension of man;

- the scientific picture of new naturalism in philosophical anthropology was completed. As was shown, works of new naturalists reduce social and philosophical discourses about the inner world of man. As was noted, these philosophical provisions are capable of programming culture, where nowadays destructive processes are under way.

 

Research supervisor:

head of the Department of the History of Anthropological Doctrines,

Prof. P.S. Gurevich, D.Sc. (Philosophy), D.Sc. (Philology)

 

 

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2004-2007

 

The title of research work (theme):

«Topical problems of anthropology»

 

Key themes (parts) of the project:

1. The split of human being;

2. Personal growth;

3. Peak states of consciousness.

 

The following results were obtained:

In the theoretical perspective, horizons of modern philosophical anthropology were distinguished. As was shown, at the end of the past century quite a few events took place that radically changed not only the anthropological theme but also attitude to it (P.S. Gurevich’s monograph «Problema tselostnosti cheloveka [The problem of human integrity]» М., 2004; the department’s collective monograph «Spektr antropologicheskikh ucheniy [The spectrum of anthropological doctrines]». Part 1 (М., 2006)).

The spectrum of anthropological doctrines to study was considerably broadened. The department focussed on postmodernist anthropology (Aleynik R.M. Chelovek v filosofskom postmodernizme [Man in philosophical postmodernism], М., 2006), cultural anthropology, religious anthropology (articles in scientific journals), psychoanalytical anthropology (a course of lectures at the philosophical faculty of Moscow State University).

The problem of personal growth and peak states of the personality received comprehensive coverage in the monograph «Ponimanie kak problema [Understanding as a problem]» (М., 2007). The paradox of the new situation was that the anthropological boom met with an opposition expressed in the idea of the «death of man». Many philosophers of this trend emphasized that the desire of European thinkers to consider ontological and epistemological problems through the human prism resulted in impermissible distortion of theoretical consciousness. Within the framework of continuing research of the phenomenology of language based on comparison of the conceptions of G.G. Shpet, V.S. Bibler, L.S. Vygotsky, A.F. Losev, M.M. Bakhtin and others, the points of similarity and difference between «inner speech», «inner forms of language», «inner dialoguicity of speaking» were established; within these concepts, a difference of understanding the degree of similarity/distance and isomorphism/non-isomorphism of language and sense was shown; parallels of these concepts with modern analytic-linguistic concepts (presupposition/assertion, theme/rheme, locution/illocution, etc. were drawn (Gogotishvili L.A. Indirect speaking. М., 2006), a paper at the Bordeaux conference (France) entitled: «Expected differences and unexpected similarities of the conceptions of  G. Shpet and M.Bakhtin, 20 November 2004).

 

Research supervisor:

head of the Department of the History of Anthropological Doctrines,

Prof. P.S. Gurevich, D.Sc. (Philosophy), D.Sc. (Philology)