Institute of Philosophy
Russian Academy of Sciences




  2017, Vol. 3, No. 2
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2017, Vol. 3, No. 2

 

Philosophical anthropology

2017, Vol. 3, No. 2.

CONTENTS



FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF


Pavel Gurevich. The resurrector of past accomplishments

Vladislav Alexandrovich Lectorsky noted his 85-year anniversary by the report at the methodological seminar of Institute [18]. He dedicated his analysis to the domestic philosophy of the 20-ies of the last century. The brilliant constellation of thinkers, tragic fates and unsolved mysteries. Things which caused the disengagement and passion are largely forgotten. Different time comes. Different views of the world, of person reign now. Sometimes pride impels to look arrogantly at not so distant past. But, according to the authoritative opinion of Vladislav Alexandrovich, we have much more reasons for wonder and admiration of called decades. What a striking and comprehensive rise of humanitarian thought! What a variety of insights in the time of imposed ideological unanimity! What impeccable assortment of traditions, not losing their appeal and value!
“In our philosophy at that time, – wrote a few years ago V.A. Lectorsky, – outstanding thinkers with their original conceptions worked, and the different philosophical schools were active. The controversy between them was acute. This did not prevent all those who belonged to the new philosophical movement to be aware of their general ideological opposition to the official philosophy, inculcated from the top, and did not destroy their personal mutual relations” [21, p. 7].
But who, if not Vladislav Alexandrovich, to be the judge? Many of the things mentioned in his report are part of his life. He is not only the witness, he is the living participant in this historical process. From 1987 to 2009 he was chief editor of the magazine “Voprosy filisofii”, chairman of the international editorial board of the journal. It was a time of powerful revival of philosophical work and the recovery of tradition. Works of N. Berdyaev, S. Bulgakov, S. Frank, D. Pisarev and many other famous thinkers were published. Not only memories, but also expert assessments of Vladislav Alexandrovich are valuable. He indicates a great interest in the problem of person which was designated in the 20–30-ies of the last century. Some authors believe that in this field of philosophical knowledge Russia still lagged behind the West. They often declare with secret joy that philosophical reflection existed only in fiction. Bright philosopher F.I. Girenok writes: “Philosophers in Russia
are bearers of European culture. We all are sitting and waiting for what they compose, write for the written to be read, translate and comment. We, Russians are outsiders of the European holiday of thought. Poor, what are we going to do if the machine breaks down, if Europe ever stops to think? Because then in our minds inevitably would arise the revolutionary question: what is to be done?” [16, p. 48]. Needless to say, in a sense, we are “outsiders” for Europe. Haven’t they experienced such a catastrophic event as the expulsion from the country of the best representatives of humanitarian thought? “Philosopher’s steamboat” is a sinister metaphor. Is there in European history the expulsion of a sage as Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin, who then becomes the number-one sociologist in the world science? The gap with philosophical fashion is not the consequence of an exhausted mind. Russian philosopher Konstantin Kavelin at the end of the XIX century wrote truthfully: “Now we think that serious interest in philosophy should eventually emerge and become vital. Scientific sybaritism and amateurism would give way to an in-depth examination, when we finally understand that one or the other direction of our practical life and activities depends on one or the other solution” [17, p. 291–292]. Honoring the hero of the day, we want following reflections V.A. Lectorsky refer to two thinkers of Russia, whose pan-European significance is without question, Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev, and Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin.

Keywords: philosophy, tradition, sociology, science, humanitarian thought, idea, creativity, existential, immanent, transcendent

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-8-29



FACETS OF HUMAN EXISTENCE


Mary Midgley. The Game Game

The article discusses the philosophical-anthropological aspects of the concepts of play and game that have become widely used in philosophy, game theory, moral theory. This concept was employed by ancient philosophers (stoics, Plato) and authors of modern theories (Huizinga, Bern). The notion of play is viewed as a metaphor and compared to specific games. Metaphorically, play pervades all areas of human life, personal relationships, professional activities, artistic creation. In this connection, the problem of delimiting play and life arises.
Keywords: philosophy, anthropology, play, game, seriousness, metaphor, resemblance, promising, rule, religion

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-30-56



CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY


Valentin Lazaryev. Philosophy of Tragedy by N.A. Berdyaev

The choice of the subject in the article on the philosophy of Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev (1874–1948), especially on his “philosophy of tragedy”, must inevitably address a number of related topics, such as philosophical and religious revival in Russia, freedom of will, personality, self-transcendence, coercion and necessity; philosophical currents: Slavophilism, Westernism; certain names: A.S. Khomyakov, V.S. Solovyev, F.M. Dostoevsky; national character, fate of Russia; certain categories: spirituality, tri-unity as the beginning, integrity, principle of antinomic monodualism, fragmentation of consciousness, relativism, and so on.
Many terms and concepts here contain not just ambiguity, contradictions, difficulties, but problems (which are usually understood only as “themes”), and even not just tasks that need to be solved, but real problems that do not have solutions (due to the immaturity of the current philosophy, underdevelopment of the conditions of our era), and are fundamentally insoluble, requiring reflection and seeming even pointless for rational thinking. Such insoluble problems include tragedy, antinomic monodualism, and theodicy.
A person who had not overcome himself did not leave his past behind, that is, continues to live in the past. Only when we detach ourselves from our past, we turn it into something already experienced, which continues to lie at the base of the present, which we do not throw away, but overcome. In the study devoted to A.S. Khomyakov, the most significant of the early Slavophiles, Berdyaev stated that in the immediate circle of them they “did not yet recognize” the “real tragedy” and Khomiakov himself had “insensitivity” to it.
Therefore, the understandable side of this feeling Berdyaev found philosophically understood and overcome in the works of Dostoevsky and V. Solovyov. He also saw an ascent to their own intimate idea of “antinomical monodualism”, developed in his time by representatives of the philosophical and religious direction, who persistently strove to rise above the tragedy in world-feeling and to overcome the aforementioned life affliction in the meantime so escalated in the Russian world-feeling that Berdyaev declared it to be a fundamental feature of all philosophy and even of all human history.

The analysis of the present, past and future allowed Berdyaev to bring together the categories of historical time, to connect them with eternity and to develop a view on the inseparable integrity of being. You cannot return to the too temporary and perishable in the past, but it is possible and necessary to revive what in the past, now forgotten, was eternal. The thought of inner rebirth, of the overcoming and transformation of something and of oneself plays an important role in the dynamic worldview of Berdyaev. In fact, the problem is not to stand back from suffering or dutifully endure misfortunes and reconcile with the terrors of earthly existence, but to overcome them in oneself and to rise above them inwardly.

Keywords: Slavophilism, Westernism, A.S. Khomyakov, V.S. Solovyev, тF.M. Dostoevsky, Russia, free will, tri-unity, antinomic monodualism

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-57-80



SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY


Alissa Tolstokorova. Blessing or burden? Paradoxes and traps of female spatial emancipation

The object of the study is the historical process of spatial emancipation of women, Ukrainian women in particular. This process is understood as the widening of the socio-spatial context of women’s existence throughout their relocation from the private to public spheres as an imperative of industrialization and is seen as aimed at the achievement by women of spatial freedom and the right to autonomous geographic mobility in the second half of the 19-th – early 20-th centuries.

On the grounds of the data of two stages of spatial emancipation of women, singled out in the author’s earlier works, the paper analyses socio-historical paradoxes and gendered traps resultant from this process. They consist in the transformation of socio-cultural benefits provided by female spatial emancipation at the first stage of this process, into the burden of excessive obligations, dependencies and limitations of post-soviet Ukrainian migrant women. Thus, the research showed that at the first stage of spatial emancipation, i.e. in the second half of the 19-th – early 20-th centuries, a great significance for Ukrainian womanhood had academic migration to West-European Universities, which triggered the modernization of women’s spatial practices. In turn, this process facilitated the transformations of bodily and physical image of females as well as gendered evolution of their self-identity. As a result, a figure of a «new woman» has emerged, the one who rejected «home as a woman’s place». Yet, the realities of the capitalist stage of human development have transformed the acquisition by women of the freedom of movement in the public sphere from a decided benefit into new forms of dependencies: exploitation and over-exploitation at the working place, inequality in the remuneration for work, women’s «double burden» and even «triple burden» for rural women, with respective negative effects on their health, devaluation of «women’s work», constraints in making career and in joggling work and family life, feminization of poverty and homelessness,  etc. That is, spatial emancipation of women became, for one, the tool for the maximum widening of their existential space, which today became global in scope, but for the other, it turned into a gendered trap for women insofar as it transformed into a tool of their exploitation and multidimensional discrimination, thus reinventing itself from a blessing into a burden, from emancipation into «pseudo emancipation».

The paper identifies the following paradoxes of the historical process of spatial emancipation of Ukrainian women: 1) triple loss as a way to «triple win»; 2) «home» as work and work as «home»; 3) social exclusion in the heart of a foreign family; 4) growth of social status as a result of downshifting; 5) paradoxes of «globalization of motherhood»; 6) strengthening of one myth as a result of contesting the other; 7) negative gender saldo of migration for women; 8) double burden instead of gender egality; 9) pressures of spatial freedom as a way to hijab. As a conclusion, the author contends that the causality behind the gendered paradoxes and traps of female spatial emancipation lies in the nature of capitalism which regards a human being not as an individual and a personality in his/her own right, who performs sacral and metaphysical functions, but as no more than a tool of enrichment and of achieving selfish interests by the exploitative class of capitalists.

Keywords: society, gender, women’s spatial emancipation, migration, self-identity, gender trap, emancipation, mobility, private space, social status, values

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-81-106



POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY


Petr Simush. Russian Literature – 1917: In search of Common Denominator

The conception, suggested to the author by Velimir Khlebnikov, consider the Great Revolution as “equality of worlds” and “unity of people and things”. These comparisons of genius are described by V. Khlebnikov as the “common denominator”. The revolutionary events rose to their tops: the election of the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church and of members of the legislature. National communicative revolution, which for decades was prepared by the struggle for the liberation of Russia from the “mute” state, includes the four phases of the revolution, which make up a whole – a national revolution. Its actuality is the subject of the proposed study.
Choosing a methodological position, the author took the guidelines in the poetics of the Silver age, applying the tetrad philological projecting through the prism of history, philosophy, religion and politics
The search for “common denominator” of revolutionary events led to the phenomenon of humanity and the principle of humanism. The revolution of 1917 can be defined with adjectives – civilizational and humanistic. At a distance of century, “big picture” is seen as consolidation of the country for the ending of the war. Sovereign coup at the beginning of 1918 terminates.
Keywords: mute Russia, «twice»-revolutionary November, the Council of the Orthodox Church, the Patriarch, the subjectivity of the Constituent Assembly, civilizational revolution, medianity, humanism

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-107-123



RELIGIOUS ANTHROPOLOGY


Anatoly Chernyaev, Alexandra Berdnikova. Historical Ideal as a Script of the Future: Genesis and Evolution of the Project of Theocracy by Vladimir Solovyov

The article is devoted to the historical and philosophical reconstruction of the conception of the free and universal Theocracy by Vladimir Solovyov. Ideological roots of this concept in the work of Solovyov are disclosed; main stages of its theoretical development are illuminated; the cultural and historical context and the primary reception of the Theocracy as the key idea in Solovyov’s system in the period of 1880s are shown. In this period, which has started with the number of publications in “Rus” newspaper (1881–1882) and finished with the publication of his main work “Russia and the Universal Church” (Paris, 1889), the idea of the union of Orthodox and Catholic churches was the main condition of the idea of the free Theocracy. The history of writing and publication of unfinished Solovyov’s work “The History and the Future of Theocracy” is examined. The attempt of the textual reconstruction of the author’s thought was made. This attempt is caused by the fact that none of the three published editions of this work (separate chapters in the magazine “Orthodox Review”, Zagreb’s edition and posthumous edition in the Collected works under the editorship of Ėrnest Radlov and Sergey Solovyov) can be considered as a true and full author’s thought. The development of this theme by Solovyov is considered in the context of thinker’s ideological evolution, which resulted in his disappointment in the utopian ideal of Theocracy, reflected in works “On the Decline of the Medieval World Outlook” (1891) and “War, Progress, and the End of History: Three Conversations” (1900). The question of the meaning of Soloviev’s theocratic project in which the thinker tried to find a way of resolution of current problems of his time by appealing to Medieval religious and political conceptions is raised.

Keywords: theocracy, Vladimir Solovyov, pan-unity, ecumenism, church, orthodoxy, catholicism, slavophils, history, utopia

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-124-140



HERMENEUTICS


Sergey Chernov. The doctrine of the genius by Arthur Schopenhauer

The article for the first time provides an integral-analytical overview of Arthur Schopenhauer’s doctrine about genius, where the basic ideas are as follows. First, the genius is a quite exorbitant and real redundancy of intellect, which does not require for itself and its services the blind will, which rules the world. At the same time a man of genius grasps the general principles of being, becoming able to know essence of things, what is beyond the capacities of any ordinary or even talented people. Second, contemplative and therefore more objective and holistic knowledge of the world is the essence of genius, which allows him to see the worlds, inaccessible to perception and understanding of other people. Thirdly, the subject of genius’s knowledge are problems that reflect the “essence of things in general, only that, they have in common, the whole” and, on the contrary, all other people easily pass by those problems, which a genius just can’t miss. Fourth, people of genius, because of their ability to contemplative world cognition, which differs from the knowledge implemented in the form of concepts, which provide only vapid abstractions, are able to comprehend the reality of the “Platonic ideas.” Ingenious people least care about their own benefit, on the contrary, their efforts are focused not on personal gain, but on creation of universal human values, that ultimately form the spiritual culture of the humanity.
The article also discusses the Schopenhauer’s ideas of genius and madness and shows the illegitimacy of qualify Schopenhauer as a supporter of the psychopathological theory of genius. The study shows that Schopenhauer deduces the origins of genius from reflection about the man, not restricting the analysis of genius to substantive boundaries of psychology, and for the first time raises this problem at the level of philosophical-anthropological analysis and, thus, attaches to the problem of genius ontological, universal, and fundamental character.

Keywords: Arthur Schopenhauer, philosophical anthropology, genius, intelligence, contemplative knowing, talent, madness, maturity, childishness, creativity

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-141-160



HUMAN LIFE-WORLD


Denis Fisette. Love and Hate: Brentano and Stumpf on emotions and sense-feelings

This paper studies the controversy between Franz Brentano and his student Carl Stumpf regarding emotions and sense-feelings. The issue is whether the pleasure provided by an object such as a work of art is intentional, as in Brentano’s theory, in which it is closely related to the class of emotions (love and hate), or merely phenomenal, as Stumpf would have it.
The paper is divided into two parts: the first part describes several aspects of the relationship between Stumpf and Brentano. The second part evaluates whether Stumpf’s deviation from several theses of Brentano’s descriptive psychology, namely that on emotions and sense-feelings, challenges his commitment to Brentano’s program in philosophy.
On July 14, 1866 Stumpf met Franz Brentano for the first time during the disputation of his habilitation at the University of Wurzburg.
Stumpf’s debt to Brentano and his philosophy is well documented in his writings published during his lifetime and in many manuscripts.
The starting point of the controversy between Brentano and Stumpf is the distinction proposed by Stumpf between emotions (joy, envy, disgust, etc.) and what he calls Gefuhlsempfindung (pain, pleasure, etc.), which can be translated as sense-feeling or “algedonic sensation”). Stumpf argues that there is a specific difference between sense-feelings, which are sensory qualities such as sound and color, and emotions, which are intentional states directed towards objects. The issue is whether the pleasure provided by an object, say a work of art, is intentional, as it is in Brentano’s doctrine in which it is closely related to the class of affects, or phenomena, as argued Stumpf and the sensualists James and Mach. It is this issue that divided Brentano and Stumpf.
Keywords: Stumpf, Brentano, emotions, sense-feelings, Lotze, intentionality, nature of pleasure, descriptive psychology, anhedonia, aesthetic feelings

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-161-178



PARADOXES OF MODERN HUMANISM


Trifon Suetin. Carl Gustav Jung on the classification of fantasies

The main theme of the article is the phenomenon of fantasy from the perspective of anthropological thought. The author sees fantasy as one of the most important and multi-faceted anthropological phenomena. Fantasy is involved in all the spheres of human life. Weaving into strict scientific thought, it significantly enriches the knowledge. It has powerful compensatory function, allowing you to embody many unfulfilled desires in dreams. Fantasy can have hedonistic nature, it can cause aesthetic pleasure, as evidenced by art.
Human dreams are countless, they are unique, they have originality in their expression. This complicates the analysis of fantasy in the anthropological aspect. In the history of philosophy there have been various attempts to systematize the fantasies. The author guided by the works of C.G. Jung gives the anthropological classification of fantasies. As a result, there arise three kinds of fantasies on the basis of their appearance.
The first is fantasy, which arise in the collision of man with the external, surrounding reality. People are constantly changing the world around them, making plans, dreaming, trying to imagine their future, and are navigating in their lives largely due to their fantasies. C.G. Jung shows that fantasy, as “spontaneous action of the psyche”, in contact, in the interaction with reality, is constant creative act, and is able largely to fill in the lacks of life. Life not always meets human aspirations, and dreams are much more than the possibilities of their implementation in reality. In fantasy a person can fill in the lack of life, the dream has great compensatory power. However, fantasy can be dangerous in its extreme detachment from reality, immersing person in a complex, tangled procession of illusions that prevent the high-grade existence. But there are fantasies, for which reality has almost no meaning. These are fantasies of the second kind generated by the inner world of man, by the diversity of his feelings. Sublime poetic dream is able to draw worlds that have no relationship to the world, but are directly related to the profound states of the human soul. Speaking about this kind of fantasies, Jung largely relies on the philosophical tradition of romanticism. In these dreams people are able to penetrate their own inner world, to have access to their deep sensual states. It can be the sense of freedom of their lives, the fear of death, the contemplation of glorified beauty. Fantasy creates a completely different reality, which main value is the creative freedom of the human spirit.Fantasies as a product of the collective unconscious become the subject of the third part of the article. Jung found that many people’s fantasies have deep historical roots. Such fantasies expressed the content of the collective unconscious. The accumulated, crystallized experience of mankind transmitted through the fantasies of myths, legends and various tales. In this perspective, fantasy becomes the common heritage in works of art, but also transfers to modern man a concentrated mental experience of our ancestors through the centuries. We may find that in some myths (e.g., about Hero) orfairy tales (Beauty and the Beast) the stages of development of the psyche of any person are symbolically encrypted. The author shows that C.G. Jung in his works examined at length all three kinds of fantasies. Moreover, such a classification suggests that fantasy is one of the most significant phenomena of man. No other creature possesses such a well-developed and versatile fantasy.Fantasy is expressed the uniqueness, originality, eccentricity of man.

Keywords: fantasy, C.G. Jung, reality, inner world, anthropology, human being, being, the collective unconscious, fantasy, dream

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-179-196



HUMAN EXISTENTIALS


Aleksey Fatenkov. Human Existence in the Gallery of Converted and Alienated Forms

The article is devoted to the study of human existence in the aspect of its converted and alienated forms. Both of them are different from the original form, which is present actually or potentially. The converted form is not completely overcome, but exists only as an overcoming one. By ceasing to be denied by a man, it becomes the alienated form. The converted form belittles the authenticity, but does not obscure it entirely. The alienated form, on the contrary, is able to obscure, neutralize the authenticity. The true human existence is manifested as a non-impassive life together, at least of two people with each other. Sociality is a converted form of life together, excessively rationalized and mechanized. Recognized as a substance of reasonable egoism, it is permeated by the capitalist spirit, which is not eliminated by socialist practice. Rationalistic and mechanistic reductionism is immanently inherent in sociality. Determined by it, it evolves towards alienated forms of life, turns into excessive sociality. The latter is not assimilated by the human individual: it corrodes his nature and existence, subordinates his sociality to economic and technical structures. In conjunction with sociality and its internal logic, the author critically assesses the progressist worldview. Progress is a converted form of development, which tends to alienate and destroy even faster than sociality. The modern world is in a state of innovative decadence. It is no longer just a parasitism on the future, characteristic of classical progressist theories and practices; it is a transfer into the present of the exhausted exploitation of the future. Humankind experiences this state in a strange form of sublime fall. To discuss the stated subject, the author draws on philosophical and literary material and meaningful life empiricism. The pathos of the article is in a realistic and responsible recognition of the continuity of being and in the feasible resistance to its inauthentic forms.

Keywords: human being, converted form, alienated form, life together, sociality, excessive sociality, reasonable egoism, innovative decadence, sublime fall, existence

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-197-220

 


HORIZONS OF PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY


Roman Paleev. Values of the economic man

The article analyzes the character of an economic man represented in the work of the German philosopher and pedagogue Eduard Spranger. The author of the article tries to identify this type of a man through his dominant value system. Whom can we regard as an economic man? Probably someone involved in economic processes. No, such a definition is not enough. We all are more or less involved in the economy. But there are people who seem designed for such activities. Such people are few. Not all may be successful in business matters. Thus, economic man is a character, a certain set of traits, represented as a kind of unity.
It is known that philosophers have often sought to create one or another typology of personalities. Philosophers and historians have searched in humans traits of similarity and difference. The individual appears before us as he expresses himself: how he moves, how he loves and how he is jealous, what is his lifestyle, what are his needs, aspirations and goals, what are his ideals and how he shapes them, what values move him, what and how he performs and creates. There are many approaches to the division of people as bearers of character or type.
E. Spranger has noted that the task of our isolating and idealizing study must resolve twin challenges. First of all, it should distract from the special forms of economy depending on the state of culture. It cannot refer only to the agricultural sector, or craft and industry, as cannot refer only to subsistence farming, cash or credit economy, but it must consider the eternal economic motive as some constant function between the subject and the world of goods, even if the subject and the world of goods are variable. And secondly, we need to get distracted from those particular historical forms of society in which production, exchange and consumption take place. Isolation needs to be implemented so strictly, as if a person could manage by himself, even if in reality people manage only in certain social and legal conditions. We believe, however, that a purely economic person as a part of the home or the urban economy, as a part of the national or world economy – in each case reveals the same spiritual type. And only this type is of interest to us here. The inner world of a theoretical person we found not only in professional scientists: the inner world seems known to us as the peculiar structure of the soul, which can occur also outside of science. Exactly the same is the case: people who have described by us structure of value life is not necessarily the people earning themselves a living (Erwerbsmenschen). Rather, the main motive of usefulness may permeate various aspects of personality and dominate its overall structure even in those areas where, in fact, one would expect other settings right up to the decisive ethos of the entire human existence. On the contrary, those who constantly insist that the economic element is defining everything as human beings are not always natural-born utilitarians. For example, Marxists are mostly theorists or politicians: their theory does not fit with their own existence – the circumstance which could be used for critics of the economic awareness of history, if this awareness did not work with the psychology of the unconscious certainty which represents not a description, but purely constructive metaphysics.

Thus, the economic man in the most general sense is one who in every relation of life puts the value of utility in the first place. Everything turns to him into the means of preservation of life, the means of the natural struggle for existence and a nice arrangement of life. He is frugal in his use of substance, of power, of space, of time in order to extract the maximum of beneficial effects. We, the people of modern times, maybe, would call him the practical person, because the whole area of technology is similarly subordinated to economic criteria (as we will see below). But his value is not the depths of mentality that make decisions about the values, but completely external beneficial effects. The Greeks, therefore, would call him albeit “doing” (poiounta) but not “acting” (prattonta). The famous German philosopher, psychologist and educator Eduard Spranger tried to create a gallery of social characters. As a basic framework which allowed him to make a distinction between social types, Spranger took a spiritual setting that underlined a way of life. In the activities of a particular person prevails, as a rule, one of these settings. Highlighting the core values, which focus on the human behaviour and ultimately determine it, Spranger did not realize that in each of these areas there are people with the opposite mental qualities and characteristics. His principle in the article is characterized as rather abstract.

According to E. Spranger, the economic man is guided by the principle of “useful and enjoyable”. This distinguishes him from the theoretical person for whom it is important to distinguish “true or false”. Can spirituality be measured economically? The German researcher points to the spiritual meaning of labour. He notes that the economic man is found in two forms – as a producer and as consumer. More boldly the economic process is presented in person, which is engaged in the production in any direction to be able to consume in this or that direction. It clearly manifests a balance between the benefits and the losses of utility. The German scholar makes a distinction between production and consumption. But in economic life, another demarcation is possible. It belongs to Aristotle. He distinguished the economy and the chrematistics. The economy aimed at the satisfaction of needs and the chrematistics – at the profit.

Keywords: people, personality, character, typology, psyche, spirit, life, behaviour, mind, passions

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-221-244



SCIENCES OF MAN


Tamara Dlugatch. Is randomness necessary? – thoughts of the French enlighteners

The article clarifies the relationship between necessity and chance in history, it is viewed through the views of prominent French enlighteners – the materialists Holbach, Helvétius and Diderot. Holbach was one of the first in the 18th century who identified necessity and causality by attributing randomness to phenomena which causes we do not know. In his opinion, everything in the world is rigidly and unambiguous defined; if we know the cause of the present event, then we can think that it will be the cause of the next and so on. There is not a single particle of matter, not a single person that would not be where they should be and they should act exactly as they act, for this had been determined by the preceding series of causes. Holbach’s views had outstripped the findings of P. Laplace, who described the alleged Demon, who knew absolutely everything in the past and the future.
It seems that the views of Helvétius, who defended the power of chance, refute the teaching of Holbach. But this is not so: if all that happens is necessary, then chance is just as necessary, and arguments of Helvétius are directed toward this goal. Helvétius focuses on education, proving that everything is determined by the case.
Denis Diderot, reflecting on the way of thinking of his friends, comes to the conclusion that the arguments of necessity turn out to be the justifications of randomness, and vice versa, i.e. move from the thesis to the antithesis, and vice versa, and, in this way, open up a special, non-Hegelian dialectic in their reasoning. This is the subject of his dialogues “Le Neveu de Rameau” (Rameau’s nephew) and “Jacques le fataliste” (Jacques-fatalist).
The reflections on French decisions make possible to outline the prospects for today’s researches of the problem. The works of V.S. Stepin have the great influence on the development of them.

Keywords: necessity, accident, reason, chain, connection, dialectics, education, way of thinking, phenomenon, reasoning, dialogue

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-245-264



MAN IN THE WORLD OF ART


Nataliya Tatarenko. End of Art in Philosophy of Hegel: Meaning and Interpretation

Did Hegel really say in his lectures in Berlin that art has completed its development, that it was a matter of the past and would not be the object of our interest in the future anymore? Or are we dealing with a kind of misreading of Hegel’s aesthetics? Hegel’s aesthetics and so-called the “end-of-art” thesis are of great interest among the researchers of Hegel’s works, as well as among contemporary artists. The fact that nowadays art sometimes pushes the viewer to the questions about the role of art in the contemporary world and distinction art from non-art, drives up this interest. The ambiguous development of artistic forms and the appearance of new types of artistic activity lead us to look for new criteria to determine what exactly may be called a work of art now. Nevertheless, the question of whether Hegel spoke about the “end” of art or he was misunderstood by the researchers, remains open. Taking into account the development of contemporary art, this issue is now of key importance.
Along with many interpretations of the basic concepts and problems of Hegel’s aesthetics, there are two opposed opinions on how to interpret the Hegelian idea of the “end” of art. The first is that Hegel did not fully understand the development of art and made the erroneous conclusion that art came to its “end”. Another position, for example, by the American philosopher and critic Arthur Danto, proclaims Hegel a kind of predictor of the development of art in the twentieth century. After all, the classical art that was familiar to Hegel belongs rather to the history of art, than is an ideal for contemporary artists. This is undoubtedly a necessary part of art history, but it doesn’t hold a real place in the artistic process.
Such a point of view deserves an interest of some researchers. Hegel, in fact, was one of the first philosophers who drew attention to the problem of the correlation of contemporary art and art of past days. This is his undeniable advantage and the relevance of his aesthetic views for researchers today. Of course, it sounds strange to assume that Hegel could predict the line of the art’s development, but he has caught the following general trend: the number and variety of subjects touched on by artists, writers, musicians are gradually expanding and diversifying. Step by step, sensual form of the work of art changes next to the transformation of the content. Technical progress and social development also make their contribution into the history of the art’s development. Hegel was ahead of his contemporaries, turning his attention not only to the classical art of the Ancient Greece and regretting the loss of the ideal, but also looking to the future, appreciating contemporary art. To analyze this problem, the author relies on such Hegelian texts as “Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences”, “Phenomenology of Spirit”, “Lectures on Aesthetics”, published under the editorship of H.G. Hotho, as well as auditor’s transcripts of the 1823 and the 1826 lecture series. In the course of historical and philosophical reconstruction, the author comes to the conclusion that the meaning of the “end-of-art” thesis, considered within the Hegelian philosophical system is to change the social and cultural role of art. The art does not come to its end at any particular stage of development, but just acquires new features and functions in accordance with the development of society.

Keywords: philosophy, G.W.F. Hegel, art. “end-of-art” thesis, aesthetics, spirit, absolute idea, religion, man

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-265-282



BOOKISH DISCOURS


Pavel Gurevich. Publishing projects of Svetlana Yakovlevna Levit

From the inexhaustible flow of books, we have selected a few publications, which, in our opinion, are of undeniable value. First of all our attention attracted publishing projects of Svetlana Yakovlevna Levit. In this case, we selected the books devoted to history. From the legacy of Aron Yakovlevich Gurevich articles from two collections was taken: “History is a Never-ending Dispute” and “Medieval and Scandinavian Studies”. Works of famous medievalist A.J. Gurevich are published not for the first time. The author analyzes the book by A.M. Shishkov on the history of the intellectual culture of the middle Ages “On the Shoulders of Giants. Essays on the Intellectual Culture of the Western middle Ages (XIII–XIV centuries)”.
Readers undoubtedly know that the Institute for scientific information on social Sciences (INION) is now working in difficult conditions. After a fire, it has become difficult to organize a systematic and purposeful activity in the building of the Institute. More surprising that the publishing program of S.Y. Levit continues, and its mastermind successfully implements a variety of plans to release a rarest literature.

Keywords: history, Middle Ages, culture, religion, mentality, medieval studies, courtly love, religion, culture of laughter, eschatology

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-283-289


Pavel Gurevich. Publishing program of “Kanon+”

Serious philosophical literature issues the publishing house “Kanon+”. Selection for publication is often unexpected. This applies, for example, to the “Notebooks of L.S. Vygotsky” or original in many ways “Emotional plague of mankind” by W. Reich. The records that L.S. Vygotsky kept for himself are multifarious: notes on memory, unexpected thoughts, and polemical remarks. Undoubted achievement of the publishers is the publication of classic work of Reich, which may be called a kind of social utopia, destined to crush the emotional plague of humankind.
The work of O.V. Popova “Man as an artifact of biotechnology” opens new horizons for the analysis of achievements of biotechnology and of transformation of human nature. The collected papers “Perspectives of realism in contemporary philosophy” are devoted to the focal problem of modern discussions on realism and antirealism in the philosophy of science and epistemology.

Keywords: psychoanalysis, psychology, hedonism, sexuality, culture, person, artifact, design, context, age

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-290-295


Elvira Spirova. Renunciation of the Numinous (review on the book “Expulsion of God. Problem of Sacred in the Philosophy of Man” by N. Rostova)

The monograph “Expulsion of God. Problem of Sacred in the Philosophy of Man” by N. Rostova [14] covers a wide range of philosophical problems. In ancient civilizations the Sacred embraced all levels of life, from rites and cults to politics, housekeeping and everyday life. It is because the ancient people had a significant big soul – universal and immense World-Soul – honored it, tried to live life in ontological wakefulness and intense perception of existence. The Sacred looked at the ancient man from all sides – by starry eyes of night sky, by the waters of creeks and springs, by herbs and trees, beasts and birds, other people, objects of cult and everyday life (“an angel of ordinary human affairs” of N. Kluev). The Sacred inspired a terror and delight, awe and tenderness, carried a man away in multidimensional worlds of intense interior life, with bends and precipices, with rising and falling. The Sacred never was univocal, it was not measured by the scale “good-bad”, “pleasant-unpleasant”, “profitable-unprofitable”; it is obviously beyond the opposites: movement to Paradise exposes the Hell, interest in the Hell makes you think of Paradise.
The author of the study widely uses the presentation of philosophical texts, not only of Western, but also of Russian thinkers. In this respect, the book is encyclopedic. In line with the theme the well-known and rare materials are introduced. However, the study is remarkable for the apparent originality. Deviating from stereotypes widespread in Russian literature, N. Rostova finds in the Sacred the focus of many acute problems, which are present in the field of contemporary ideological division. In this context, the Sacred is not a private subject, caracteristic of transformation of social consciousness, but full-scale philosopho-anthropological teaching. Despite the desire of some authors to ridicule the Sacred, to equate it to prejudice, N. Rostova finds in this theme the necessary philosophical depth. In the light of the Sacred many themes of philosophical anthropology get a completely different interpretation. This allows N. Rostova deal not only with theological issues, but to think over destiny of philosophy on the modern level of reflection. By including in the monograph previously published fragments, N. Rostova maintains the integrity of her conception and opens the possibility of later discourses about man. The monograph is a significant event for modern understanding of philosopho-anthropological topic.

Keywords: philosophical anthropology, man, culture, the Sacred, God, “death of God”, “human death”, fear, victim, desacralization

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-296-313


Nataliya Krotovskaya. Historical Essay about Love (review on a book «Philosophy of Love: A Partial Summing-Up» by I. Singer)

Irving Singer (1925–2015), a former professor of philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, author of more than twenty scientific books. “Philosophy of love” is not his first book devoted to the study of various aspects of love.
Singer begins his study from the times of antiquity, examines the views of Plato, considering the Greek concept of Eros and the Christian concept of love, Agape, not only confronting them, but making the attempt “to synthesize”. He writes about courtly love, analyses the views of Freud, engaging in polemics with him, because the latter, in the author’s opinion, mistakenly considered the foundation of love an overestimation of the object of passion, and therefore regard the love as illusion and self-deception.
Presenting the views of Nietzsche, Singer touch upon the estimation of love by existentialists, in particular J.-P. Sartre. The author considers himself as the successor of the ideas of the American philosophers-pragmatists such as William James, John. Dewey and “neoplatonic” John. Santayana.
He further traces the connection between love and creativity, examining the role of creativity in our experience. This is the central problem for traditional thoughts about love, whether love for God, the Christian Agape, or any other form of human love. Singer treats a gift of love as the all-pervading component of human creativity.
The future of the philosophy of love Singer sees in combination of Sciences and the Humanities. In the present reality must arise new forms of art and new branches of science that would be able to deal with the many unresolved issues in the area.

Keywords: love, Agape, Eros, courtly love, romantic love, “appeasement”, fusion, dualism, pluralism, creativity

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2017-3-2-314-328