Institute of Philosophy
Russian Academy of Sciences

  History of Philosophy, 2015, Vol. 20, No. 2
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History of Philosophy, 2015, Vol. 20, No. 2




Marietta Stepanyants. Cultural Interaction in Respond to Common Challenges

Any culture contains both an orientation towards harmony between man and nature, and an orientation to rule over natural forces, an orientation towards intrusion into them. It would be erroneous to bring the crops to any single alternative axiological orientation. The “share” of each orientation varies in different cultures and in different historical periods of the same culture. Plurality of axiological orientation makes culture multidimensional, dialogical, allows the latter to transform itself, moving to the periphery that was yesterday dominant in the culture. The tense relationship between the axiological orientations, entering among themselves in the relationship of mutual criticism, rejection, support, dialogue, constitutes the life of the culture and could be most productive in the construction of the ecological civilization.

Keywords: global challenges, ecological civilization, culture, nature, axioloical orientation, dialogue



Pavel Lenkov. Buddhist Influence on Taoist Thought in the Late Medieval China: Introduction, Commentary, Translation of the first Chapter of the Text “Lun men xin fa” (“The Law of the Heart / Mind [according to tradition] Longmen”)

This contribution includes an introduction to and an annotated translation of the first chapter of the text “The Law of the Heart/Mind [According to Tradition] Longmen”. This text sets out the views of Kongyang-zi (Wang Changyue), mentor of the Taoist school Quan Zhen Jiao. Wang Changyue was a prominent teacher and theoretician, his activities brought about the revival of the Longmen tradition and Quan Zhen Jiao school as a whole. The introduction examines the terminology used in the first chapter of “Long men xin fa”. Along with Taoist terms in the text we find Buddhist and Confucian ones, which is very typical of late-Taoist syncretic ideology. In this case, it is the terminology related with the doctrine of the “Three Jewels”, borrowed from Buddhism.

Keywords: Taoism, Buddhism, Quan Zhen Jiao (The Doctrine of the Perfect Truth), “Long men xin fa”

Stanislav Rykov. Duty or Justice: Once Again About the Term Yi 義 in Ancient Chinese Philosophy

The article presents a philosophical analysis of the ancient Chinese term yi 義 (usual Russian translations are ‘justice’, ‘morality’, ‘duty’). After analysis of many examples from ancient Chinese sources, the author concludes that it is incorrect to translate the term yi 義 as ‘justice’, because it is not understood as a principle of distribution of benefits and harms, does not imply the idea of ‘equality’ and is not conceived as anti-altruistic reaction in response to a problematic situation in ‘the scope of justice’. The translation of yi 義 as ‘morality’ is not accurate, as this term is used in non-moral contexts or considered as only a part of morality. The last translation of yi 義 as ‘duty’ appears to be correct, as yi 義 indicates the need for action not based on personal interests or affects. 

Keywords: duty, justice, ancient Chinese philosophy, ethics

Maria Rubets. The Impact of Modernization Processes on Some Aspects of Modern Chinese Language

The article highlights the problem of the influence of globalization and technological progress on some aspects of the Chinese language: the borrowing process and the formation of new terms, the development of vocabulary, emoticons and other phenomena accompanying the internet and sms communication. Science (chemical) terminology, as well as online vocabulary (policode texts, in particular, emoticons) show the tendency to use perceptual representations, i.e. compositing new hieroglyphs to denote chemical compounds from the keys in the hieroglyphs denoting the reacting chemicals; using hieroglyphs as parts for new emoticons relying on their resemblance with human expressions etc. It is concluded that the Chinese speaker has a general disposition for thinking in spacial patterns, which has not transformed much, despite the processes of modernization and globalization.

Keywords: archaic thinking, scientific terminology, emoticons, Chinese language, perceptual representations, policode text



Vladimir Ivanov. ‘Vijñānabhairava-tantra’ 1–23 with ‘Uddyota’by Kṣemarāja. Translation of Sanskrit. Analysis. Commentaries

The paper presents the translation of the extant part of the ancient ‘Uddyota’ commentary by Kṣemarāja on the renowned ‘Vijñānabhairava-tantra’. It encompasses the initial śloka-s of VBT (1–23). This extant part of Kṣemarāja’s commentary, both profound in its content and intricate in exposition, could be in a certain sense viewed as a separate text – a sort of prolegomena to the tantra itself. His ‘Uddyota’ Kṣemarāja uses the philosophical apparatus of the doctrinal side of the monistic Śaiva tradition of Kashmir developed by his famous predecessors and reveals the mystery of generation of the sacred tantra text from the very source of any text – the interplay of the two sides of Universal Consciousness – light of consciousness (prakāśa) and Its Self-awareness (vimarśa). This interaction is depicted in the tantra by the dialog of Śiva-Bhairava and his divine spouse Devī-Bhairavī. In his exegesis of the text Kṣemarāja draws on many important texts of the tradition: Svacchanda-tantra, Tantrāloka, Parātrīśikāvivaraṇa etc.

Keywords: Vijñānabhairava-tantra, Uddyota, Kṣemarāja, Kashmir Shaivism, religious and philosophical doctrines of India

Victoria Lysenko. Dharmakirti. “Pramana-viniścaya” (“Ascertainment of the instruments of valid cognition”). Chapter 1. Pratyaksha (perception). Karikas 1–25

This is the the first translation from Sanskrit into Russian and also the first translation into a European language of a fragment from “Pramānaviniśaya” («Ascertainment of the instruments of valid cognition») – one of the most important works of the Buddhist philosopher Dharmakīrti (VII century). In this text, the concept of Buddhist epistemology according to which the direct perception is devoid of mental constructions (nirvikalpaka pratyakṣa) being justified against the teachings of Indian religious and philosophical schools pertaining to a realist movement (Vaiśeṣika, Nyāya and Mīmāṃsā) in which it is held that until the contact of the senses with their objects persists a perception may include mental constructions (savikalpaka pratyakṣa).

Keywords: perception, cognition, instruments of cognition, realism, Indian philosophy, Buddhism, Buddhist epistemology, Dharmakīrti

Lev Titlin. The debate about the existence of the Self on the basis of doctrinal provisions of the Pali Canon in “Pudgala-vinishchaya” of Vasubandhu

The article contains a translation of a part of “Pudgala-vinishchaya” of Vasubandhu (4th century) – one of the most important Sanskrit treatises on the problem of the self, or the existence of the “I” (“atman”, “pudgala”). “Pudgala-vinishchaya” is a supplement to “Abhidharmakosha” of Vasubandhu. “Abhidharmakosha” is a short mnemonic presentation of traditional views on Buddhist dogma and “metaphysics” in the interpretation of the Kashmiri Vaibhashika school. In this article we present the translation (the first translation from Sanskrit into Russian) of a passage from the second part of “Pudgala-vinishchaya”, in which the controversy of Vasubandhu and Pudgalavadins – supporters of the doctrine of the existence of the self (“pudgala”) on the basis of doctrinal provisions of the Pali Canon is presented. Comments of the philosopher Yashomitra to the passages of “Pudgala-vinishchaya” are translated into a European language for the first time. The translation is accompanied with an overview of the problems and issues discussed in the text and a concise summary of the arguments from both sides of the debate is attached to the translation.

Keywords: Vasubandhu, the Self, “I”, Non-Self, atman, anatman, “Abhidharmakosha” pudgala, pudgalavada

Evgeny Bushuev. Conception of “one flavor” in the late Indian Tantric Buddhism – on the basis of the “Muktāvalī-hevajra-pañjikā” of Ratnākaraśānti

This article is a textological research of the Tantric Buddhist conception of “one flavor” (ekarasa) based on the material from the “Muktāvalī-hevajra-pañjikā” commentary on the tenth chapter of the “Hevajra-tantra”. The commentary was composed by Ratnākaraśānti, one of the greatest Buddhist intellectuals of the 19th century. The sources used for this research of the relevant passages from the “Muktāvalī-hevajra-pañjikā” are the most important original manuscripts. Their usage allows to critically approach the only edition of this Sanskrit text.

Keywords: Tantric Buddhism, “Hevajra-tantra”, “Muktāvalī-hevajra-pañjikā”, Ratnākaraśānti, ekarasa, samarasa



Liubov Karelova. The problems of Time in philosophy of Ōmori Shōzō

Ōmori Shōzō (1921–1997) is one of Japan's leading philosophers of the twentieth century, who started out as a phenomenologist, then moved toward to the problematization and methods of analytic philosophy.

The study of his works “Time and 'Self’” (1992), “Time and Being” (1994) and “Time Does not Flow” (1996) made it possible to trace the ways of solving the problems of time within the analytic trend in modern Japanese philosophy.

The paper focuses on the following main topics investigated by Ōmori Shōzō: the relation of “spontaneously occurring time” given in immediate experience, and the concept of “linear time” used in physics and everyday life; the understanding of the past, present, future, and the forms of their existence; the problem of the past as a collective verbal creation; the possible existence of “past in itself”; the problem of the reality of time.

Keywords: linear time, spontaneously occurring time, now, past, present, future, reminiscences, past in itself 

Ali Abdarrazik. Islam and the Foundations of Political Power (Preface by N.V. Efremova)

Ali Abdarrazik (1888–1966) is a famous Muslim Egyptian scholar and religious thinker. His book “Islam and the Foundations of Political Power” (1925) has become a manifest of secularism in Islam. It was published in a period following the famous secular reforms undertaken by the Turkish president Kemal Ataturk, in the course of which the caliphate, the Muslim theocratic state, had been abolished. Ali Abdarrazik argues against the predominant view on caliphs and caliphate, approved by Muslim ulemas and widely spread in public circles. The author also proclaimed that Prophet Muhammad hadn’t regarded the exercise of political power as merely accidental to his main task of prophetic mission. After Muhammad’s death the caliphs didn’t continue his prophetic mission, acting only as political leaders. 

Keywords: Islam, Muslim political thought of the early-to-middle 20th century, Ali Abdarrazik, caliph, caliphate, secular and spiritual power, modernism, secularism




Andrey Terentyev. Review of Yaroslav Komarovski: “Visions of Unity. The Golden Paṇḍita Shakya Chokden’s New Interpretation of Yogācāra and Madhyamaka”. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2011. xii+452 p

The book written by Yaroslav Komarovski, Assistant Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, is the first systematic discussion of the views of the innovative Tibetan Buddhist thinker Shakya Chokden (1428–1507) on the two major systems of Mahāyāna Buddhism – Yogācāra and Madhyamaka. Too bold for its time, Shakya Chokden’s thought was buried in oblivion, all 24 volumes of his work becoming available only in the 1970s. 

Keywords: Shakya Chokden, Komarovski, Tibet, Buddhism, Yogācāra, Madhyamaka 

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