Institute of Philosophy
Russian Academy of Sciences

  History of Philosophy. 2016, Vol. 21, No. 2
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History of Philosophy. 2016, Vol. 21, No. 2




Maxim Evstropov. G. Shpet and G. Deleuze: Logics of Sense

The article compares theories or logics of sense of Russian phenomenologist Gustav Shpet (1879–1937) and French philosopher Gilles Deleuze (1925–1995). Despite the temporal and philosophical distance between these theories, they also have much in common. Both transcend the borders of semantics or philosophy of language turning out to be something like ontologies of sense. Both are critically related to the theory of sense of Edmund Husserl, and both are trying to complement the phenomenological view of sense with their own specific element. In the case of both Shpet and Deleuze the sense is considered as an ontologically specific instance, the key feature of which is neutrality. According to Shpet, this is the non-objective in the very structure of the object, the “entelechy”. According to Deleuze, this is the non-corporal effect, the event as the irreal extra-being. In both cases the sense effectuates synthesis or convergence of series: of empirical and eidetical intuitions according to Shpet, of bodies and propositions according to Deleuze. In both cases the sense is understood as a condition of meaning of linguistic expressions. In both theories there is a paradoxical intuitivism affirming the necessity of direct experience of the sense. Shpet states that the sense has social character, so the hermeneutical intuition that perceives it is analogous to the empathy as the immediate experience of the other. But Deleuze relates the sense to the impersonal and pre-individual transcendental field. We also can find this figure of the impersonal field of consciousness in the writings of Shpet, as well as for Deleuze the question of the other keeps staying important – nonetheless, that’s this difference in accentuation that puts their theories at variance.

Keywords: Gustav Shpet, Gilles Deleuze, sense, logic of sense, ontology of sense, phenomenology


Valentin Balanovskiy. I. Kant and C.G. Jung on Impossibility of the Scientific Psychology

This study aims to show a similarity of Kant’s and Jung’s approaches to an issue of the possibility of scientific psychology, hence to explicate what they thought about the future of psychology. Therefore, the article contains heuristic material, which can contribute in a resolving of such methodological task as searching of promising directions to improve philosophical and scientific psychology. To achieve the aim the author attempts to clarify an entity of Kant’s and Jung’s objections against even the possibility of scientific psychology and to find out ways to overcome those objections in Kant’s and Jung’s works. The main methods were explication, reconstruction and comparative analysis of Kant’s and Jung’s views. As a result it was found, that Kant and Jung allocated one and the same obstacles, which, on their opinion, prevent psychology to become a science in the strict sense. They are: 1) coincidence of subject and object in psychology; 2) impossibility to apply quantitative mathematic methods in psychology; 3) pendency of the issue of psychophysical parallelism. However, Kant and Jung indicated ways to resolve formulated by them fundamental difficulties. All those ways lay through the searching a principle of interaction and connection between the psychic and the physical.

Keywords: Immanuel Kant, Carl Gustav Jung, science, empirical and rational psychology, analytical psychology, mathematic methods in psychology


Liubov Karelova. The Concept of Time by Kimura Bin

The article is dedicated to the consideration of the concept of time by Kimura Bin, a scholar engaged in research at the crossroads of psychiatry and philosophy, whose research was based on practical experience with patients suffering from different types of personality disorders as well as on the reflection on the vast historical and philosophical material. The author focuses on the analysis of Kimura’s approach considering the time and space through the prism of popular Japanese philosophical idea of “betweenness” (aida) and his interpretation of correlation between present, past and future, time and eternity.

Keywords: Kimura Bin, betweenness (aida), thing, event, “now”, eternity, bios, zoe

Nina Dmitrieva. The Conception of History by Nikolai Boldyrev: Neo-Kantian Perspectives

The paper is devoted to the conception of history formulated by the Russian philosopher Nikolai Boldyrev at the beginning of the 1920 s. The aim of the paper is the reconstruction of his ideas of history giving particular attention to the results of his reception of the neo-Kantian theoretical models and approaches. In order to clarify the conditions of this reception, the context of the philosophic-historical research in the Russian neo-Kantian movement is outlined and some earlier unknown facts of Boldyrev’s scientific biography are shown. These facts confirm his profound professional interest in the neo-Kantian philosophy. The author of the paper focuses her attention on the main philosophic-historical text of Boldyrev entitled “The Meaning of History and Progress” (1922) and shows that in this text the key concepts of the neo-Kantian philosophy of history such as time and eternity, end and ideal, Utopia and progress, man and mankind are comprehended systematically. As a result of the comparative analysis of the basic terms and notions and the theoretical models from the texts of German and Russian Neo-Kantians, the theoretical sources of Boldyrev’s conception of history are identified. They are, firstly, the philosophical systems of the Marburg and South-Western Neo-Kantians – H. Cohen, E. Cassirer, and H. Rickert, and, secondly, the theoretical-methodological approach to history as a science by the Russian historian and critical philosopher Aleksander Lappo-Danilevsky whose scientific conception in turn is based on the philosophical ideas of I. Kant and German Neo-Kantians.

Keywords: philosophy of history, German and Russian Neo-Kantianism, methodology of history, time, teleologism in history, Utopia, ideal


Monique Castillo. Republic and Public Good: Philosophical Heritage and Contemporary Challenges

Modern states have to join the individual freedom of the citizens with the collective unity of the common body. Republic is the political model in which individual freedom consists in participating to a common good and a common destiny. Democracy is the political model in which the preservation of every individual freedom constitutes the main and common goal of politics. These two political models can get enemies, as one can see in events that happen in Europe today. But, as a matter of fact, the modern civilisation has to combine two philosophical heritages for the concept of Republic: the one of Kant and the one of Hegel…

Keywords: republican sovereignity, democratic equality, cosmopolitic citizenship, public space, Europe, Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Michel Foucault, J. Habermas


Alexey Kara-Murza. Some Questions of Genesis and Typology of Russian Liberalism

The article raises questions fundamental for the study of the genesis, development and typology of Russian liberal thought, such as: Do liberal teachings have a national specificity (ie, whether national liberal models exists)? Is there an invariant of the liberal doctrine and of the liberal socio-cultural project? Is Russian liberalism genetically «secondary» in relation to Western liberalism? Could a supporter of the concept of “slavofilism” be a liberal? What is the correlation between liberalism and religion? How do “liberty” and “order” correlate? These and other issues are addressed by the author in the context of the formation and development of Russian liberalism in the 18th–20th centuries.

Keywords: Russian thought, political philosophy, liberalism, identity, state, reforms


Olga Zhukova. Ontological Foundations of Freedom: The Metaphysics and Social Philosophy of S.N. Trubetskoy

S.N. Troubetzkoy (1862–1905) – the outstanding Russian thinker and public figure. The author of the original concept of “concrete idealism”, he is a staunch follower of the philosophical ideas of V.S. Solov’ev. Trubetskoy is one of the best representatives of the national intellectual elite. In his works he argues values of European modernity, the spiritual and political freedom of the individual and society. According to the author, philosophical ideas and political beliefs of Trubetskoy are single source. In the heart of the philosophical system of “concrete idealism” is specific logocentric ontology of freedom. The liberal concept of political freedom grows out of the Christian intuition of personal immortality. Trubetskoy defends independent significance of Russian religious metaphysics, seeing in the Eastern Christian tradition of philosophizing the potential for ontological enrichment of the rationalist thought in Modern Era. Thus, in philosophy, he shows the way of synthesis for Russian and European thought, and in social life he protects the path of peaceful transformation of the political system and development of Russian society.

Keywords: idealism, Christian liberalism, metaphysics, ontology, freedom, Logos, culture, politics, monarchy, society, revolution, S.N. Troubetzkoy


Dmitry Moiseev. The Political Philosophy of Giovanni Gentile

This paper is dedicated to the political philosophy of an Italian neo-hegelian philosopher Giovanni Gentile. The principal subject is Gentile’s vision of politics, the investigation of the key notions of his political thought: “duty”, “character”, “state”, “nation”, and “law”.

The roots of Gentile’s political philosophy lie in the actualist ontology. This is made evident by referring to his works “General Theory of Spirit As Pure Act”, “Genesis and Structure of Society”, “Introduction To Philosophy”. The paper also reviews the links between Gentile’s political philosophy and the ideals of “Risorgimento” (in the first place, to the political thought of Giuseppe Mazzini), outlines his influence during the fascist “ventennio”.

Keywords: Giovanni Gentile, fascism, Neo-Hegelianism, political philosophy, totalitarianism, actual idealism, actualism




Viktor Vizgin. Gabriel Marcel’ Social Philosophy

The introductory article to the translation of “The Philosopher in the Contemporary World” by Gabriel Marcel from his 1951 book “Man against Mass Society” on social and political problems acquaints the Russian reader with the French thinker’s social philosophy. The article clearly demonstrates that the latter is defined by the Christian humanist worldview. An important aspect of this demonstration is the analysis of how Marcel understands the relation of human spiritual freedom and religious faith. According to the French thinker, they appear and are suppressed together. Thus, as a society’s religious faith disappears, so does human spiritual freedom. Dechristianization of a society is accompanied by the captivation of man free in his ontological opportunities. In such a society the very idea of freedom degenerates and people don’t feel to be bound by anything except money or pleasure.

Keywords: Gabriel Marcel, Christian humanism, social philosophy, social ideals


Gabriel Marcel. The Philosopher in the Modern World

Alexey Rutkevich. Ortega y Gasset’s Philosophy of History

Philosophy of history is an important part of J. Ortega y Gasset’s system, as it connects his metaphysics with political philosophy, history of philosophy and aesthetics. This article considers Ortega’s evolution from Neokantianism to phenomenology and existential analytics, his historicism (conception of the “vital or historical reason”), compared with the historicism of other European thinkers of the first half of the 20th century, and his doctrines of generations and modes of thinking, succeeding one another in history. Ortega’s “metahistory” (his view that history has cycles or “rhythms”) correlates with his “hermeneutics of the visual” in the history of art, his doctrine of the evolution of deductive theory in the history of science, and his interpretation of revolution in political history.

Keywords: philosophy of history, historicism, hermeneutics, generation, ideas and beliefs, revolution


Jose Ortega y Gasset. The Declin of Revolutions

Leonardo Polo. The Project of Transcendental Anthropology (the foreword by Galina Vdovina)




Andrey Ballaev. History of Philosophy in the Form of an Article (Moscow: Cultural Revolution Publ., 2016. Ed. Julia Sineokaya)

This review examines a collective work analyzing the genre of articles on the history of philosophy and several essays as examples and illustrations of the research carried out. The work’s contents are diverse in themes and matter, both in its first and second parts. The result is a consistent and comprehensive presentation of the subject declared, with some of the articles, such as the texts by N.V. Motroshilova and E.Yu. Soloviev, being of particular theoretical value.

Keywords: history of philosophy, article, genre


Irena Vdovina. Book review: Z. Sokuler. Subjectivity, Language and Other. New Ways and Temptations of Thought Opened by the Teachings of Emmanuel Levinas (Moscow: Universitetskaya kniga Publ., 2016)

The book presents the teachings of the French philosopher Emmanuel Levinas (1906–1995). The world of his oeuvres is introduced through the analysis of his peculiar language, cautioning against straightforward understanding and encouraging creative reading of his texts. The monograph studies the main notions (“key words”) and themes of Levinas’s philosophy, his relation to classical philosophy and the teachings of M. Heidegger, E. Husserl; compares his conceptions to those of L. Wittgenstein, H. Cohen, K.-O. Apel. The author tries to examine the prospects opened by the work of the French thinker before the professional philosopher of the early 21st century.

Keywords: the Other, subjectivity, meeting, face, face-to-face relationship, eternity, love, sociality, justice, responsibility, height


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